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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management In Herbal Medicine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(828).
1. Epigallocatechin gallate
6. Boheic acid
10. Gallic acid
Epidemiological studies, linking green tea in reduced risk of prevented the development of insulin resistance(1066)(1067) and metabolic sundrome such as obesity(1068)(1069)(1073), hypertension(1070)(1071) hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia(1072)(1073), diabetes(1074)(1075)... have produced some statistic results.
In inslunin resistances, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major chemical constituents of green tea effectively modulate of insulin productionb through inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake(1076)(1078)(1077) via some mechnisms, including attenuated inflammatory cytokine levels(1076), inhibition of the GLUT4(the insulin-regulated glucose transporter found primarily in adipose tissues and striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac).) translocation(1077), AMPK pathways(an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis)(1078)....
In metabolic synfrome, green tea extract, polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate significantly controled abnormalities linked to metabolic syndrome (MS)(1079)(1080)(1083)(1084)(1085) through influence the maintenance of weight loss(1079)(1082)(1084), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol(1079), triglycerides(1079), and glucose concentrations(1079)(1080), counteracted endothelial dysfunction(1080)(1081) and ameliorated metabolic insulin resistance(1080) in skeletal muscle and liver(1080).
Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(827a) Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): pointers for nutritional management by Farshchi H, Rane A, Love A, Kennedy RL(PubMed)
(828) The optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome? by Marsh K, Brand-Miller J.(PubMed)
(1065) Popular Herbs - Green Teaby Kyle J. Norton
(1066) The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial by Mozaffari-Khosravi H1, Ahadi Z1, Fallah Tafti M2.(PubMed)
(1067) Effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and lipid abnormalities: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial by Liu CY1, Huang CJ2, Huang LH3, Chen IJ1, Chiu JP1, Hsu CH1.(PubMed)
(1068) Preventive role of green tea catechins from obesity and related disorders especially hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia by Ahmad RS1, Butt MS2, Sultan MT3, Mushtaq Z4, Ahmad S5, Dewanjee S6, De Feo V7, Zia-Ul-Haq M8.(PubMed)
(1069) Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea by Diepvens K1, Westerterp KR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS.(PubMed)
(1070) Decaffeinated green tea extract improves hypertension and insulin resistance in a rat model of metabolic syndrome by Ihm SH1, Jang SW, Kim OR, Chang K, Oak MH, Lee JO, Lim DY, Kim JH.(PubMed)
(1071) Prevention of hypertension, cardiovascular damage and endothelial dysfunction with green tea extracts by Antonello M1, Montemurro D, Bolognesi M, Di Pascoli M, Piva A, Grego F, Sticchi D, Giuliani L, Garbisa S, Rossi GP.(PubMed)
(1072) The role of green tea extract and powder in mitigating metabolic syndromes with special reference to h)yperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia by Yousaf S1, Butt MS, Suleria HA, Iqbal MJ.(PubMed)
(1073) Preventive role of green tea catechins from obesity and related disorders especially hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia by Ahmad RS1, Butt MS2, Sultan MT3, Mushtaq Z4, Ahmad S5, Dewanjee S6, De Feo V7, Zia-Ul-Haq M8.(PubMed)
(1074) The effect of Ginkgo biloba and Camellia sinensis extracts on psychological state and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by Lasaite L, Spadiene A, Savickiene N, Skesters A, Silova A.(PubMed)
(1075) The relationship between green tea and total caffeine intake and risk for self-reported type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults by Iso H1, Date C, Wakai K, Fukui M, Tamakoshi A; JACC Study Group.(PubMed)
(1076) Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activity via 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by Bao S1, Cao Y1, Zhou H1, Sun X1, Shan Z1, Teng W1.(PubMed)
(1077) Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate suppresses IGF-I and IGF-II stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte glucose uptake via the glucose transporter 4, but not glucose transporter 1 pathway by Ku HC1, Tsuei YW2, Kao CC2, Weng JT3, Shih LJ3, Chang HH1, Liu CW1, Tsai SW4, Kuo YC5, Kao YH6.(PubMed)
(1078) Green tea epigallocatechin gallate inhibits insulin stimulation of adipocyte glucose uptake via the 67-kilodalton laminin receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways by Hsieh CF1, Tsuei YW, Liu CW, Kao CC, Shih LJ, Ho LT, Wu LY, Wu CP, Tsai PH, Chang HH, Ku HC, Kao YH.(PubMed)
(1079) Effects of Rye Bread Enriched with Green Tea Extract on Weight Maintenance and the Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome Following Weight Loss: A Pilot Study by Bajerska J1, Mildner-Szkudlarz S, Walkowiak J.(PubMed)
(1080) Vascular and metabolic actions of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate by Keske MA, Ng HL, Premilovac D, Rattigan S, Kim JA, Munir K, Yang P, Quon MJ1.(PubMed)
(1081) Effects of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction by Jang HJ1, Ridgeway SD, Kim JA.(PubMed)
(1082) Effects of dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate on weight loss, energy homeostasis, cardiometabolic risk factors and liver function in obese women: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial by Mielgo-Ayuso J1, Barrenechea L2, Alcorta P3, Larrarte E4, Margareto J4, Labayen I1.(PubMed)
(1083) Polyphenols: planting the seeds of treatment for the metabolic syndrome by Cherniack EP1.(PubMed)
(1084) Weight control and prevention of metabolic syndrome by green tea by Sae-tan S1, Grove KA, Lambert JD.(PubMed)
(1085) The potential role of green tea catechins in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome - a review by Thielecke F1, Boschmann M.(PubMed)
(1086) Popular Herbs -Cinnamonby Kyle J. Norton