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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management In Herbal Medicine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(828).
The Fertility Herb: Licorice
See the common herbs used for treatment of PCO
2. Blow flow
Licorice improves the blood flow in the body by exerting its anti thrombosis(983) and inhibiting the levels of bad cholesterol(984)(985) and triglyceride levels(985) and increasing HDL-cholesterol content(984) in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(985) and blood stagnation(897) in the abdominal region induced induced infertility(986).
Glycyrrhizin, one of main ingredient from licorice, exhibited anti inflammatory effect pharmacologically in treatment of inflammatory diseases(988)(989)(990), lowered high serum testosterone levels in oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic women, and induced conception in some women(991). As antioxidant, the phytochemical also inhibit irregular cell growth(992)(993) and microbial invasion(994)(995) causes of cancers(992)(993) and infection and inflammation(994)(995) respectively. in adrenocortical function and behavour, it also regulated the levels of cortisol(996), induced by over production of serotonin cause of hormone imbalance(997).
[Phytoestrogen found it balck cohosh showed to occupy the estrogen receptor sites in women body(908), through it antiestrogenic and extrogenic effects(909), to induce hormone balancing may result in improving the chance of ovulation and fertility(910)(911)].
Lecithin is a fat like substance called a phospholipid improved lipid transfer, cholesterol efflux, HDL genesis and and remodeling at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)(998). against cells from oxidation surrounding the brain(999), in reducing psychotic symptoms(1002) such as stress(1000)(1001), and depression(1002) .
1. It may raise blood pressure(1003)(1004(1006)
2. Long term usage of large dosage can also cause edema(1004)(1006) and hypokalemia(1004)(1005)(1006).
3. Overdose can be toxic(106), in inducing rhabdomyolysis or myoglobinuria(1006).
Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(827a) Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): pointers for nutritional management by Farshchi H, Rane A, Love A, Kennedy RL(PubMed)
(828) The optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome? by Marsh K, Brand-Miller J.(PubMed)
(983) Antithrombotic effect of Glycyrrhizin, a plant-derived thrombin inhibitor by Mendes-Silva W1, Assafim M, Ruta B, Monteiro RQ, Guimarães JA, Zingali RB.(PubMed)
(984) Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn) in rats by Visavadiya NP1, Narasimhacharya AV.(PubMed)
(985) Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: increased resistance of LDL to atherogenic modifications, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased systolic blood pressure by Fuhrman B1, Volkova N, Kaplan M, Presser D, Attias J, Hayek T, Aviram M.(PubMed)
(986) [Exploration into rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility].[Article in Chinese] by Yao DN1, Chen WY, Xiao Y.(PubMed)
(987) [Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome by Chinese medicine and pharmacy: an analysis of data mining on experiences of experts].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang BH1, Gao R, Li ZH, Li BS, Wang FY, Tang XD.(PubMed)
(988) [Pharmacological study of the anti-inflammatory agent glyderinine].[Article in Russian] by Azimov MM, Zakirov UB, Radzhapova ShD.(PubMed)
(989) Glycyrrhizin protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation by downregulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling by Ye S1, Zhu Y1, Ming Y1, She X1, Liu H1, Ye Q1.(PubMed)
(990) Protective effect of glycyrrhizin, a direct HMGB1 inhibitor, on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in rats by Gong G1, Xiang L2, Yuan L3, Hu L1, Wu W1, Cai L1, Yin L1, Dong H3.(PubMed)
(991) [Effect of shakuyaku-kanzo-to, shakuyaku, kanzo, paeoniflorin, glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhizin on ovarian function in rats].[Article in Japanese] by Takeuchi T1.(PubMed)
(992) Glycyrrhizin induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and LNCaP by Thirugnanam S1, Xu L, Ramaswamy K, Gnanasekar M.(PubMed)
(993) Glycyrrhetic acid (a metabolic substance and aglycon of glycyrrhizin) induces apoptosis in human hepatoma, promyelotic leukemia and stomach cancer cells by Hibasami H1, Iwase H, Yoshioka K, Takahashi H.(PubMed)
(994) Glycyrrhizin, an active component of licorice roots, reduces morbidity and mortality of mice infected with lethal doses of influenza virus by Utsunomiya T1, Kobayashi M, Pollard RB, Suzuki F.(PubMed)
(995) Glycyrrhizin stimulates growth of Eubacterium sp. strain GLH, a human intestinal anaerobe by Akao T1, Akao T, Kobashi K.(PubMed)
(996) [Involvement of striatal serotonin in fluoxetine effects on adrenocortical function and behaviour].[Article in Russian] by Shishkina GT, Bulygina VV, Iudina AM, Tolstikova TG, Dygalo NN.(PubMed)
(997) Relationships between androgens, serotonin gene expression and innervation in male macaques by Bethea CL1, Coleman K2, Phu K3, Reddy AP3, Phu A3.(PubMed)
(998) Phospholipid transfer protein is expressed in cerebrovascular endothelial cells and involved in high density lipoprotein biogenesis and remodeling at the blood-brain barrier by Chirackal Manavalan AP1, Kober A, Metso J, Lang I, Becker T, Hasslitzer K, Zandl M, Fanaee-Danesh E, Pippal JB, Sachdev V, Kratky D, Stefulj J, Jauhiainen M, Panzenboeck U.(PubMed)
(999) Alterations in phospholipidomic profile in the brain of mouse model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable stress by Faria R1, Santana MM2, Aveleira CA3, Simões C1, Maciel E1, Melo T1, Santinha D1, Oliveira MM4, Peixoto F5, Domingues P1, Cavadas C2, Domingues MR6.(PubMed)
(1000) Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress by Hellhammer J1, Fries E, Buss C, Engert V, Tuch A, Rutenberg D, Hellhammer D.(PubMed)
(1001) Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency protects against cholesterol-induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice by Hager L1, Li L, Pun H, Liu L, Hossain MA, Maguire GF, Naples M, Baker C, Magomedova L, Tam J, Adeli K, Cummins CL, Connelly PW, Ng DS.(PubMed)
(1002) Altered phospholipid metabolism in schizophrenia: a phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study by Weber-Fahr W1, Englisch S, Esser A, Tunc-Skarka N, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Ende G, Zink M.(PubMed)
(1003) Licorice-induced hypertension and syndromes of apparent mineralocorticoid excess by Walker BR1, Edwards CR.(PubMed)
(1004) Gan Cao(Chinese(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1005) Licorice-induced hypokalemia by Mumoli N, Cei M.(PubMed)
(1006) Glycyrrhizic acid toxicity caused by consumption of licorice candy cigars by Johns C1.(PubMed)