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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
In Traditional Chinese Perspective
While conventional medicine focus of using synthetic medication to induce ovulation and assisted artificial insemination for infertility couple, if the medicine fail, traditional Chinese medicine views polycystic ovarian syndrome in different approaches.
Polycystic ovary syndrome, according to traditional Chinese medicine is a medical condition characterized by accumulative of fluid over a prolonged period of time causes of dampness and phlegms(1247a)(1247b) build up on the ovaries due to the effects of vary differentiations, affecting not only the women’s menstrual cycle, but also ovulation and fertility(1247a)(1247b).
The Nutritional Supplements according to Traditional Chinese medicine
4. Flaxseed oil (Best for PCOs patient diagnosed with kidney yin deficiency(1247)(1248)) Flaxseed oil is extracted from the seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum) contained both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Flaxseed oil generally contains 50% of the omega-3 fatty acid - alpha-linolenic acid and 25 % of the omega-6 fatty acid linolenic acid, 15 % of mainly monounsaturated oleic acid and trace amounts of palmitoleic acid and eicosenoic acid(1371).
1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
2. Palmitic acid
3. Stearic acid
4. Arachidic acid
5. Palmitoleic acid
6. Oleic acid
7. Eicosenoic acid
8. Linoleic acid
Epidemiological studies of health benefit of Flaxseed oil are well established, including reduced blood pressure(1372) (1373) and cholesterol(1374)(1375), risk of irregular cell growth(1376)(1377), diabetes(1378)(1379) and osteoporosis(1380)(1381), benefit cardiovascular system(1382)(1383), menopause symptoms(1384)(1385), cyclic mastalgia (breast pain)(1390), patients with Sjogren’s syndrome(1386) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD(1387)(1388), use of natural laxative(1389)(1390), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)(1390), etc., probably due to the the efficacy of alpha-linoleic acid(1390) and its antioxidant(1391)(1392)(1393)(1394) and anti inflammatory(1392)(1395)(1396) activity. Recent studies also suggested that flax seed oil processes anti insulin resistance(1397)(1398) and metabolic syndrome(1400)(1401), confers health benefits in obesity(1400) due to its effect on adipocyte function(1399) activities due to the effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)(1400)(1401).
Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(1246) [Clinical study of area of Jiangsu province of polycystic ovarian syndrome correlation distribution of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome type and improper diet]. [Article in Chinese] by Feng Y, Gao YP.(PubMed)
(1247) [Preliminary study on relationship of disease-syndrome-symptom of ovulatory disorder infertility based on factor analysis]. [Article in Chinese] by Li M, Ma K, Shan, J.(PubMed)
(1247a) A Comprehensive Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) bny by Liqin Zhao
(1247b) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - a TCM Perspective by Donna Dupre, L.Ac.
(1371) Superfoods - Flaxseed oil by Kyle J. Norton(My list of Super foods)
(1372) Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials by Khalesi S1, Irwin C2, Schubert M2.(PubMed)
(1373) Favorable effects of flaxseed supplemented diet on liver and kidney functions in hypertensive Wistar rats by Al-Bishri WM1.(PubMed)
(1374) Beneficial effects of alpha linolenic acid rich flaxseed oil on growth performance and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed rats by Vijaimohan K1, Jainu M, Sabitha KE, Subramaniyam S, Anandhan C, Shyamala Devi CS.(PubMed)
(1375) Flaxseed oil intake reduces serum small dense low-density lipoprotein concentrations in Japanese men: a randomized, double blind, crossover study by Kawakami Y1, Yamanaka-Okumura H2, Naniwa-Kuroki Y3, Sakuma M4, Taketani Y5, Takeda E6.(PubMed)
(1376) Flaxseed oil-trastuzumab interaction in breast cancer by Mason JK1, Chen J, Thompson LU.(PubMed)
(1377) Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components: can they play a role in reducing the risk of and improving the treatment of breast cancer? by Mason JK1, Thompson LU.(PubMed)
(1378) Beneficial effects of flaxseed oil and fish oil diet are through modulation of different hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats by Devarshi PP1, Jangale NM, Ghule AE, Bodhankar SL, Harsulkar AM.(PubMed)
(1379) Flaxseed oil reduces oxidative stress and enhances brain monoamines release in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Badawy E1, Rasheed W1, Elias T2, Hussein J1, Harvi M1, Morsy S1, Mahmoud YE1.(PubMed)
(1380) Manipulation of flaxseed inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production in ovarian-induced osteoporosis by Abdelkarem HM1, Abd El-Kader MM, Kasem SA.(PubMed)
(1381) Can manipulation of the ratios of essential fatty acids slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss? by Kettler DB1.(PubMed)
(1382) A combination of flaxseed oil and astaxanthin alleviates atherosclerosis risk factors in high fat diet fed rats by Xu J, Gao H, Zhang L, Chen C, Yang W, Deng Q, Huang Q, Huang F1.(PubMed)
(1383) Lignan content of the flaxseed influences its biological effects in healthy men and women by Almario RU1, Karakas SE.(PubMed)
(1384) Effects of dietary phytoestrogens in postmenopausal women by Dalais FS1, Rice GE, Wahlqvist ML, Grehan M, Murkies AL, Medley G, Ayton R, Strauss BJ.(PubMed)
(1385) Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms by Lethaby AE1, Brown J, Marjoribanks J, Kronenberg F, Roberts H, Eden J.(PubMed)
(1386) [Oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum) in the treatment for dry-eye Sjögren's syndrome patients].
(1389) Laxative effects of partially defatted flaxseed meal on normal and experimental constipated mice by Xu J1, Zhou X, Chen C, Deng Q, Huang Q, Yang J, Yang N, Huang F.(PubMed)
(1390) Flax and flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum): a review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration by Basch E1, Bent S, Collins J, Dacey C, Hammerness P, Harrison M, Smith M, Szapary P, Ulbricht C, Vora M, Weissner W; Natural Standard Resource Collaboration.(PubMed)
(1391) Effect of flaxseed oil fortified with vitamin E and phytosterols on antioxidant defense capacities and lipids profile in rats by Deng Q1, Yu X, Xu J, Liu C, Huang F, Huang Q, Yang J.(PubMed)
(1392) Dietary flaxseed oil and fish oil modulates expression of antioxidant and inflammatory genes with alleviation of protein glycation status and inflammation in liver of streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats by Jangale NM1, Devarshi PP, Dubal AA, Ghule AE, Koppikar SJ, Bodhankar SL, Chougale AD, Kulkarni MJ, Harsulkar AM.(PubMed)
(1393) [Antioxidant activity of flaxseed oil].[Article in Russian] by Prozorovskaia NN, Rusina IF, Lupinovich VL, Beketova NA, Sorokin IV, Ipatova OM, Levachev MM.(PubMed)
(1394) [Antiradical activity and resistance of flaxseed oil enriched with the antioxidants to oxidative changes].[Article in Russian] by Guseva DA, Prozorovskaia NN, Rusina IF, Ipatova OM.(PubMed)
(1395) Flaxseed oil supplementation alters the expression of inflammatory-related genes in dogs by Purushothaman D1, Brown WY1, Vanselow BA2, Quinn K2, Wu SB3.(PubMed)
(1396) Effect of L. usitatissimum (Flaxseed/Linseed) Fixed Oil against Distinct Phases of Inflammation by Kaithwas G1, Majumdar DK.(PubMed)
(1397) Flaxseed oil prevents trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid-induced insulin resistance in mice by Kelley DS1, Vemuri M, Adkins Y, Gill SH, Fedor D, Mackey BE.(PubMed)
(1398) Supplementation of herbal plants differently modulated metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows fed various extruded oil seeds by Hashemzadeh-Cigari F1, Ghorbani GR2, Khorvash M2, Riasi A2, Taghizadeh A3, Zebeli Q4.(PubMed)
(1399) Dietary flaxseed oil reduces adipocyte size, adipose monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels and T-cell infiltration in obese, insulin-resistant rats by Baranowski M1, Enns J, Blewett H, Yakandawala U, Zahradka P, Taylor CG.(PubMed)
(1400) Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils by Misra A1, Singhal N, Khurana L.(PubMed)
(1401) Responses to oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats by Poudyal H1, Kumar SA, Iyer A, Waanders J, Ward LC, Brown L.(PubMed)