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Thursday, 26 November 2015

The 2nd edition of The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia under The Microscope of Conventional Medicine: TCM treatment for depletion of Kidney Essence - Herbal Huang Qi(Astragalus)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Abstract
Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.

Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.


Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine
C.5.2. Dementia due to aging depletion of Kidney Essence
Aging related to gradual lost of kidney essence effects the bone and bone marrow in production of red blood cells causes of nutrients and oxygen deficiency in the brain in induction of symptoms of dementia(1311)(1312).

4. Huang qi(Astragalus)
Huang qi, the slightly sweet herb, is also known as astragalus root used in traditional Chinese medicine as immune stimulant(1339)(1342)(1343), tonic(1339)(1344), antioxidant(1339)(1341), hepatoprotectant(1339)(1345)(1346), diuretic(1339), antidiabetic(1339)(1347)(1348), anticancer(1339)(1349)(1350)(1351), expectoran(1339)(1352) and antibiotics(1340) agents and to lessen proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases(1353)(1354), lower blood pressure(1355)(1356) and endothelial dysfunction(1356), improve endurance and protect liver against diseases(1357)(1358),... by enhancing the functions of lung and spleen channels(1359).

Phytochemicals
1. Astralagus menbranaceus
2. Astragaloside I
3. Astragaloside II
4. Daucosterol
5. Beta-sitosterol
6. Palmitic acid
7. Astragalus saponin A,B,C
8. Astramenbrangenin
9. Etc.

Huang qi(Astragalus root) used in the treatment of symptoms of dementia(1360)(1261))(1362)(1362), including Alzheimer's pathophysiology(1363) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemical astragalosides (AST) and extracts(1365)(1363) in oxidative stress inhibition(1363) and anti progression associated to neuronal cell apoptosis(1363) through inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity(1364), level glucocorticoids (GCs) and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide deposition(1367) and decreasing the expression level of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus(1365)(1366), ROS generation and neurotoxicity(1368)(1369).

4.1. In learning and memory
Polysaccharides (APS), isolated from Astragalus, in aging female SD rats model, according to the open-field test and the Morris water maze task, improved learning and memory functions of aged rats through up-regulation in the hippocampus neural protein expression(1370). In rats induced neurologic damage of hippocampus by electromagnetic field (EMF) acute or chronic irradiation, Chinese medicine diet (CMD) comprised ferulic acid, ginsenoside, astragalus polysaccharide and rhodiola sachalinensis, showed to protect the impaired learning and memory, the neuron apoptosis, through ameliorating superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)(1371). In intermittent hypoxia-induced hippocampal neurons impairment rats, astragaloside IV, astragaloside II and astragaloside I, the main compounds inAstragalus extract inhibited the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, decreased the expression of protein level involved imapair learning and memory(1372). According to Anhui Medical University, learning and memory impairments andneurons' apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids in 12-month-old male mice model, extract of Astragalus, improved learning and memory impairments andprevented neuronal cell apoptosis, through increased immunohistochemistry demonstration in hippocampus and neocortex and decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway causes of neron cell death(1373).

4.2. In Alzheimer's and Parkinson disease
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and stress-level glucocorticoids correlated with dementia progression have shown to associate to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease(1374)(1375). Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active constituents of Astragalus and extract of Astragalus, prevented Aβ1-42-induced neuron cell apoptosis, and ROS generation(1374) and down regulate the protein level builds up as Alzheimer's disease progresses, involved degeneration of hippocampus (CA1, CA3) and neocortex(1375).
According to Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Astragalus, one of the herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment neuro degenerative diseases showed to modulate multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD(1376), probably through its phytochemical Astragaloside IV in promoted neurite outgrowth and increased immunoreactive of dopaminergic neurons caused by ROS(1377).

4.3. In neuroprotective effects
In experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage induced early brain injury rat model, Astragaloside IV, exerted its antioxidative and anti-apoptoticeffects(1378)(1379), against increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, neuronal apoptosis and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)(1378). Myelophil, a combination of extracts isolated from Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, in brain dysfunctions animal model, also exhibited its anti oxidative stress, ROS activity through attenuated total glutathione (GSH) content, and the activities of GSH-reductase, GSH-S-transferase via ameliorated protein and gene expression(1380) and inflammation and regulating stress hormones(1381).



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References)
(1339) Review of the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi) by Fu J1, Wang Z, Huang L, Zheng S, Wang D, Chen S, Zhang H, Yang S.(PubMed)
(1340) Phenotypic characterization of Astragalus glycyphyllos symbionts and their phylogeny based on the 16S rDNA sequences and RFLP of 16S rRNA gene by Gnat S1, Wójcik M, Wdowiak-Wróbel S, Kalita M, Ptaszyńska A, Małek W.(PubMed)
(1341) Supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharides alters Aeromonas-induced tissue-specific cellular immune response by Abuelsaad AS1.(PubMed)
(1342) Astragalus polysaccharide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells: regulation of protein kinase B and nuclear factor-κB signaling by Luo T1, Qin J, Liu M, Luo J, Ding F, Wang M, Zheng L.(PubMed)
(1343) Anti-inflammatory effects of Polygala tenuifolia root through inhibition of NF-κB activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglial cells by Cheong MH1, Lee SR, Yoo HS, Jeong JW, Kim GY, Kim WJ, Jung IC, Choi YH(PubMed)
(1344) Investigation of chemomarkers of astragali radix of different ages and geographical origin by NMR profiling by Zheng L1, Wang M2,3, Ibarra-Estrada E4, Wu C5, Wilson EG6, Verpoorte R7, Klinkhamer PG8, Choi YH9.(PubMed)
(1345) Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation by modulating transforming growth factor-β/Smad pathway by Huang W1, Li L1, Tian X2, Yan J3, Yang X3, Wang X1, Liao G1, Qiu G4.(PubMed)
(1346) Polysaccharides from Angelica and Astragalus exert hepatoprotective effects against carbon-tetrachloride-induced intoxication in mice by Pu X1, Fan W, Yu S, Li Y, Ma X, Liu L, Ren J, Zhang W.(PubMed)
(1347) The critical role of Astragalus polysaccharides for the improvement of PPARα [ correction of PPRAα]-mediated lipotoxicity in diabetic cardiomyopathy by Chen W1, Xia Y, Zhao X, Wang H, Chen W, Yu M, Li Y, Ye H, Zhang Y.(PubMed)
(1348) Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of α-glucosidase by Zhu ZY1, Zhang JY2, Chen LJ3, Liu XC2, Liu Y2, Wang WX2, Zhang YM4.(PubMed)
(1349) Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of α-glucosidase by Zhu ZY1, Zhang JY2, Chen LJ3, Liu XC2, Liu Y2, Wang WX2, Zhang YM4.(PubMed)
(1350) Astragalus saponins downregulate vascular endothelial growth factor under cobalt chloride-stimulated hypoxia in colon cancer cells. by Law PC1, Auyeung KK, Chan LY, Ko JK.(PubMed)
(1351) Anticancer potential of rhamnocitrin 4'-β-D-galactopyranoside against N-diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats by Saleem S1, Shaharyar MA, Khusroo MJ, Ahmad P, Rahman RU, Ahmad K, Alam MJ, Al-Harbi NO, Iqbal M, Imam F.(PubMed)
(1352) Investigation of chemomarkers of astragali radix of different ages and geographical origin by NMR profiling by Zheng L1, Wang M2,3, Ibarra-Estrada E4, Wu C5, Wilson EG6, Verpoorte R7, Klinkhamer PG8, Choi YH9.(PubMed)
(1353) [Therapeutic effect of Astragalus and Angelica mixture on the renal function and TCM syndrome factors in treating stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease patients].[Article in Chinese] by Li S, Yin XX, Su T, Cao C, Li X, Rao XR, Li X.(PubMed)
(1354) Astragalus (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease. by Zhang HW1, Lin ZX, Xu C, Leung C, Chan LS.(PubMed)
(1355) Anti-hypertensive effects of shichimotsukokato in 5/6 nephrectomized Wistar rats mediated by the DDAH-ADMA-NO pathway by Bai F1, Makino T, Ono T, Mizukami H.(PubMed)
(1356) Astragaloside IV improves metabolic syndrome and endothelium dysfunction in fructose-fed rats. by Zhang N1, Wang XH, Mao SL, Zhao F.(PubMed)
(1357) The influence of astragalus polysaccharide and β-elemene on LX-2 cell growth, apoptosis and activation by Zheng J, Ma LT, Ren QY, Li L, Zhang Y, Shi HJ, Liu Y, Li CH, Dou YQ, Li SD, Zhang H, Yang MH.(PubMed)
(1358) Semen Astragali Complanati: an ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological review by Ng YF1, Tang PC2, Sham TT2, Lam WS3, Mok DK4, Chan SW5.(PubMed)
(1360) [Advances in pharmacological study of natural active polysaccharides in China].[Article in Chinese] by Han G1, Duan Y.(PubMed)
(1361) [A review of pharmacological study on Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge].[Article in Chinese] by Wu F1, Chen X.(PubMed)
(1362) [Memory-improving effect of aqueous extract of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge].[Article in Chinese] by Hong GX1, Qin WC, Huang LS.(PubMed)
(1363) Protective effect of extract of Astragalus on learning and memory impairments and neurons' apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids in 12-month-old male mice by Li WZ1, Li WP, Zhang W, Yin YY, Sun XX, Zhou SS, Xu XQ, Tao CR.(PubMed)
(1364) [Effect of improving memory and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity by invigorating-qi and warming-yang recipe].[Article in Chinese] by Liu ZY1, Yang YG, Zheng B.(PubMed)
(1365) [Study on preventative and curative effects of astragaloside (AST) on mice memory impairment and expression of amyloid precursor protein and beta secretase mRNA induced by dexamethasone].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang W1, Li W, Li W, Sun X, Zhou S, Xu X.(PubMed)
(1366) [Effects of astragalosides on PC12 cells injury and APP expression induced by dexamethasone and Abeta(25-35)].[Article in Chinese] by Huang RR, Li WZ, Li WP.(PubMed)
(1367) Protective effects of astragalosides on dexamethasone and Aβ25-35 induced learning and memory impairments due to decrease amyloid precursor protein expression in 12-month male rats. by Li WZ1, Wu WY, Huang DK, Yin YY, Kan HW, Wang X, Yao YY, Li WP.(PubMed)
(1368) Protective effects of astragaloside IV against amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. by Sun Q1, Jia N1, Wang W1, Jin H1, Xu J1, Hu H1.(PubMed)
(1369)Astragaloside IV Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat by Anwen Shao1, Songxue Guo2, Sheng Tu3, Al-baadani Ammar1, Junjia Tang1, Yuan Hong1, Haijian Wu1, Jianmin Zhang1 (International journal medical science)
(1370) [Study on effect of astragali radix polysaccharides in improving learning and memory functions in aged rats and its mechanism].[Article in Chinese] by Yao H, Gu LJ, Guo JY(PubMed)
(1371) [The Chinese medicine nutrient diet intervention prevent against the neurologic damage induce by EMF irradiation in rat hippocampus].[Article in Chinese] by Gong QF1, Yang XS, Tu L, Zhang GB, Yu ZP.(PubMed)
(1372) Protective effects of astragalus extract against intermittent hypoxia-induced hippocampal neurons impairment in rats. by Zhang Q1, Gao WY, Zhang Y, Chen BY, Chen Z, Zhang WS, Man SL.(PubMed)
(1373) Protective effect of extract of Astragalus on learning and memory impairments and neurons' apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids in 12-month-old male mice by Li WZ1, Li WP, Zhang W, Yin YY, Sun XX, Zhou SS, Xu XQ, Tao CR.(PubMed)
(1374) Protective effects of astragaloside IV against amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by Sun Q1, Jia N1, Wang W1, Jin H1, Xu J1, Hu H1.(PubMed)
(1375)
(1376) Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease. by Li XZ1, Zhang SN, Liu SM, Lu F.(PubMed)
(1377) Neuroprotective effects of Astragaloside IV in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated primary nigral cell culture. by Chan WS1, Durairajan SS, Lu JH, Wang Y, Xie LX, Kum WF, Koo I, Yung KK, Li M.(PubMed)
(1378) Astragaloside IV alleviates early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats by Shao A1, Guo S2, Tu S3, Ammar AB1, Tang J1, Hong Y1, Wu H1, Zhang J1.(PubMed)
(1379) Amelioration of oxidative stress and protection against early brain injury by astaxanthin after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. byZhang XS1, Zhang X, Zhou ML, Zhou XM, Li N, Li W, Cong ZX, Sun Q, Zhuang Z, Wang CX, Shi JX.(PubMed)
(1380) Ethanol extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, Myelophil, exerts anti-amnesic effect in a mouse model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits. by Lee JS1, Kim HG1, Han JM1, Kim DW2, Yi MH2, Son SW3, Kim YA1, Lee JS4, Choi MK1, Son CG5.(PubMed)
(1381) Myelophil attenuates brain oxidative damage by modulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in a chronic cold-stress mouse model by Kim HG1, Lee JS, Han JM, Lee JS, Choi MK, Son SW, Kim YK, Son CG.(PubMed)