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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine
B.5. Chinese Herbal medicine for toxins elimination
3. Da Suan(Garlic)
Da Suan(Garlic) used in the treatment of symptoms of dementia(1283)(1284)(1285), including Alzheimer's pathophysiology(1288)(1289) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals aged garlic extract and S-allyl-L-cysteine and extracts(1284) in oxidative stress inhibition(1284) and anti progression involved association of degeneration and neuro inflammatory activity(1286) through neuro protection against amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis(1285) and toxicity(1287).
3.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Strong evidences suggested that deposited amyloid-beta(Abeta) has shown to associate to the progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1290)(1291)(1292). In mouse model induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ), ethyl acetate fractions of garlic extract exhibited high levels of radical scavenging activity involved cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit and Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in vivo(1293). According to Indiana University School of Medicine, the extracts also attenuated synaptic degeneration and neuroinflammatory pathways associated with AD, through major phytochemical S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) (1294), including oxidative insults to neurons(1295). In Alzheimer's transgenic model Tg2576, dietary aged garlic extract (AGE) (2%) exhibited anti-amyloidogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tangle effects also through its phytochemicals S-allyl-cysteine (SAC) (20 mg/kg) and di-allyl-disulfide (DADS)(1296) without interfering with its antibiotic activity in ameliorate gentamicin (GM)(1297).
3.2. In Parkinson disease
Olfactory dysfunction(1298)(1299) in non-motor functioning and hyposmia(1300)(1301)/anosmia(1302)(1303) are common manifestation in some neurodegenerative disorders caused by oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory insults(1305), including Parkinson disease. Dietary supplement S-methyl-L-cysteine, a substrate in the catalytic antioxidant system mediated by MSRA showed to protect cells from oxidative damage through its antioxidative effect(1304) when used conjunction with methionine sulfoxide reductase A in Parkinson's-like symptoms(1304).
3.3. In Cognitive impairment
In early cognitive deficits caused by gradual accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) oligomers of Abeta42 species, aged garlic extract, in mice model, prevented progressive behavioral impairment, slowed plaque development, through protection against deterioration of hippocampal based memory(1306), In Alzheimer's disease induced mice model, S-allyl cysteine, a component of aged garlic extract, ameliorated cognitive deficits and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)(1308). According to Gyeongsang National University, the effectiveness of aged garlic extracts, in neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease(AD), may be due to its antioxidant activities in improvement of cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit(1307).
3.4. In learning and memory
Acute and chronic oral administration of aged garlic extract, in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze, improved learning and memory probably due to cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels activities and anti-oxidant property(1309). In oxidative damage and spatiallearning and memory deficits induced mice model, S-allylcysteine exerted its protective effect against reactive oxygen species. Abeta(25-35)-induced hippocampal toxicity and learning deficits, through its free radical scavenging and ameliorated lipid peroxidation activities(1310).
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(1283) S-allyl cysteine attenuates oxidative stress associated cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in mouse model of streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type. by Javed H1, Khan MM, Khan A, Vaibhav K, Ahmad A, Khuwaja G, Ahmed ME, Raza SS, Ashafaq M, Tabassum R, Siddiqui MS, El-Agnaf OM, Safhi MM, Islam F.(PubMed)
(1284) Oxidative insults to neurons and synapse are prevented by aged garlic extract and S-allyl-L-cysteine treatment in the neuronal culture and APP-Tg mouse model by Ray B1, Chauhan NB, Lahiri DK.(PubMed)
(1285) Neuroprotective effect of garlic compounds in amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis in vitro by Peng Q1, Buz'Zard AR, Lau BH.(PubMed)
(1286) The "aged garlic extract:" (AGE) and one of its active ingredients S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Ray B1, Chauhan NB, Lahiri DK.(PubMed)
(1287) Neuroprotective effects of garlic a review by Mathew B1, Biju R.(PubMed)
(1288) Garlic extract exhibits antiamyloidogenic activity on amyloid-beta fibrillogenesis: relevance to Alzheimer's disease. by Gupta VB1, Indi SS, Rao KS.(PubMed)
(1289)Effect of aged garlic extract on APP processing and tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer's transgenic model Tg2576. by Chauhan NB1.(PubMed)
(1290) Biochemical stages of amyloid-β peptide aggregation and accumulation in the human brain and their association with symptomatic and pathologically preclinical Alzheimer's disease. by Rijal Upadhaya A1, Kosterin I, Kumar S, von Arnim CA, Yamaguchi H, Fändrich M, Walter J, Thal DR.(PubMed)
(1291) Simple in vitro assays to identify amyloid-beta aggregation blockers for Alzheimer's disease therapy. by Guo JP1, Yu S, McGeer PL.(PubMed)
(1292) Inhibition of amyloid-β aggregation in Alzheimer's disease. by Wang Q, Yu X, Li L, Zheng J1.(PubMed)
(1293) Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment by Jeong JH, Jeong HR, Jo YN, Kim HJ, Shin JH, Heo HJ1.(PubMed)
(1294) The "aged garlic extract:" (AGE) and one of its active ingredients S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Ray B1, Chauhan NB, Lahiri DK.(PubMed)
(1295) Oxidative insults to neurons and synapse are prevented by aged garlic extract and S-allyl-L-cysteine treatment in the neuronal culture and APP-Tg mouse model by Ray B1, Chauhan NB, Lahiri DK.(PubMed)
(1296) Effect of aged garlic extract on APP processing and tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer's transgenic model Tg2576 by Chauhan NB1.(PubMed)
(1297) Aged garlic extract, garlic powder extract, S-allylcysteine, diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide do not interfere with the antibiotic activity of gentamicin. by Maldonado PD1, Chánez-Cárdenas ME, Pedraza-Chaverrí J.(PubMed)
(1298) Olfactory performance and resting state functional connectivity in non-demented drug naïve patients with Parkinson's disease by Sunwoo MK1, Cha J, Ham JH, Song SK, Hong JY, Lee JM, Sohn YH, Lee PH.(PubMed)
(1299) Olfactory performance acts as a cognitive reserve in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease by Lee JE1, Cho KH1, Ham JH1, Song SK2, Sohn YH1, Lee PH3.(PubMed)
(1300) A population-based study on combined markers for early Parkinson's disease. by Tunc S1, Graf J, Tadic V, Brüggemann N, Schmidt A, Al-Khaled M, Wolff S, Vollstedt EJ, Lorwin A, Hampf J, Piskol L, Klein C, Hagenah J, Kasten M.(PubMed)
(1301) Evolution of prodromal clinical markers of Parkinson disease in a GBA mutation-positive cohort by Beavan M1, McNeill A1, Proukakis C1, Hughes DA2, Mehta A2, Schapira AH1.(PubMed)
(1302) Association of anosmia with autonomic failure in Parkinson disease by Goldstein DS1, Sewell L, Holmes C.(PubMed)
(1303) Association of anosmia with autonomic failure in Parkinson disease by Burke WJ.(PubMed)
(1304) Methionine sulfoxide reductase A and a dietary supplement S-methyl-L-cysteine prevent Parkinson's-like symptoms by Wassef R1, Haenold R, Hansel A, Brot N, Heinemann SH, Hoshi T.(PubMed)
(1305) A possible emerging role of phytochemicals in improving age-related neurological dysfunctions: a multiplicity of effects by Youdim KA1, Joseph JA.(PubMed)
(1306) Amelioration of early cognitive deficits by aged garlic extract in Alzheimer's transgenic mice. by Chauhan NB1, Sandoval J.(PubMed)
(1307) Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment by Jeong JH, Jeong HR, Jo YN, Kim HJ, Shin JH, Heo HJ1.(PubMed)
(1308) S-allyl cysteine attenuates oxidative stress associated cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in mouse model of streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type by Javed H1, Khan MM, Khan A, Vaibhav K, Ahmad A, Khuwaja G, Ahmed ME, Raza SS, Ashafaq M, Tabassum R, Siddiqui MS, El-Agnaf OM, Safhi MM, Islam F.(PubMed)
(1309) Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract by Mukherjee D1, Banerjee S1.(PubMed)
(1310) S-Allylcysteine prevents amyloid-beta peptide-induced oxidative stress in rat hippocampus and ameliorates learning deficits by Pérez-Severiano F1, Salvatierra-Sánchez R, Rodríguez-Pérez M, Cuevas-Martínez EY, Guevara J, Limón D, Maldonado PD, Medina-Campos ON, Pedraza-Chaverrí J, Santamaría A.(PubMed)