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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
A. In General herbal Chinese medicine
According to the Unilever R&D Shanghai, and Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Dr. and the team of researchers, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in 3000 years' literary history, the top 5 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos(720), Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae have been used extensively for treatment of dementia(*).
A.1. Poria cocos(Fu Ling)
Fu Ling, fu shen or fu ling pi also known as Poria, the bland, sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as diuretics(711) and to treat urinary difficulty(711), edema(711), diarrhea(715), emesis(717), vomiting(716), dizziness(716), heart diseases(717)(718), etc., as it eliminates water, strengthens the Spleen, calms the Mind, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart, spleen, lung and kidney channels. The herb has shown to exhibit various biological activities including anti-tumor(713), anti-inflammation(712), immunodepression(712) and antioxidant(711)(713)(714).
6. Pachymic acid,
7. Tumulosic acid,
8. Eburioic acid,
9. Pinicolic acid,
Fu Ling(720) used for treatment and prevention of dementia(719) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to their effectiveness of phytochemicals in attenuation of oxidative stress in initiation of neurodegeneration and enhanced neuroprotection(719).
1. Learning and memory impairments
Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), the traditional Chine medicine formula, containing Poria cocos, showed effectively in exhibition of its anti-inflammatory effects in protection of brain neuron through attenuating memory(721)(722) and learning impairment(723). In senile dementia, herbal Poria cocos also elicited memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro through its sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid antioxidants via cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities(722).Yokukansan (TJ-54), another Chinese medicine formula, containing Poria cocos, also inhibited neurological disorders, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease(723) symptoms of memory and behaviors disturbance(724), probably through its anti-cholinesterase activity(725).
2. Cognitive dysfunction
In patients of dementia with cognitive dysfunction, Liuwei Dihuang decoction, containing Poria cocos, showed significantly in attenuated the neural apoptosis, inflammation and Aβ deposition in the hippocampus and cerebral corte(726) causes of cognitive impairment(727) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. In spatial cognition, herbal formula Toki-Shakuyaku-San and fractions of Angelica acutiloba, improved memory and working memory impaired by scopolamine in animal study(728).
3. Alzheimer disease
In mouse model of Alzheimer disease, herbal formula Jangwonhwan, not only showed effectively in ameliorated AD-like pathology, but also exhibited its neuroprotective effects against Abeta-induced cell death, and Abeta accumulation and plaque deposition in the brain(730), probably through attenuation of reactive oxidative stress(729), by suppressed Aβ-induced apoptosis and ROS production(731).
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(711) [Chemical constituents of surface layer of Poria cocos and their pharmacological properties (I)].[Article in Chinese] by Feng YL1, Zhao YY, Ding F, Xi ZH, Tian T, Zhou F, Du X, Chen DQ, Wei F, Cheng XL, Lin RC.(PubMed)
(712) Chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Poria cocos by Ríos JL1.(PubMed)
(713) Biological activities and potential health benefits of polysaccharides from Poria cocos and their derivatives. by Sun Y1.(PubMed)
(714) Antioxidant activity of carboxymethyl (1→3)-β-d-glucan (from the sclerotium of Poria cocos) sulfate (in vitro) by Wang Q1, Chen S2, Han L2, Lian M2, Wen Z2, Jiayinaguli T2, Liu L2, Sun R2, Cao Y3.(PubMed)
(715) [Clinical and experimental study on the treatment of children diarrhea by granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping].[Article in Chinese] by Li YL1.(PubMed)
(716) Effects of triterpenoids from Poria cocos Wolf on the serotonin type 3A receptor-mediated ion current in Xenopus oocytes by Lee JH1, Lee YJ, Shin JK, Nam JW, Nah SY, Kim SH, Jeong JH, Kim Y, Shin M, Hong M, Seo EK, Bae H.(PubMed)
(717) Sclederma of Poria cocos exerts its diuretic effect via suppression of renal aquaporin-2 expression in rats with chronic heart failure by Wu ZL1, Ren H2, Lai WY3, Lin S1, Jiang RY1, Ye TC1, Shen QB1, Zeng QC3, Xu DL4.(PubMed)
(718) Anti-rejection effect of ethanol extract of Poria cocos wolf in rats after cardiac allograft implantation by Zhang GW1, Liu HY, Xia QM, Li JQ, Lü H, Zhang QH, Yao ZF.(PubMed)
(719) Chinese herbs for dementia diseases by Hügel HM1, Jackson N, May BH, Xue CC.(PubMed)
(720) Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature by May BH1, Lu C, Lu Y, Zhang AL, Xue CC.(PubMed)
(721) Chinese herbs for dementia diseases by Hügel HM1, Jackson N, May BH, Xue CC.(PubMed)
(722) Traditional chinese medicine for senile dementia.by Lin Z1, Gu J, Xiu J, Mi T, Dong J, Tiwari JK.(PubMed)
(722a) Are herbal compounds the next frontier for alleviating learning and memory impairments? An integrative look at memory, dementia and the promising therapeutics of traditional chinese medicines by Jesky R1, Hailong C.(PubMed)
(723) Use of Yokukansan (TJ-54) in the treatment of neurological disorders: a review. by de Caires S1, Steenkamp V.(PubMed)
(724) Effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, on memory disturbance and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in thiamine-deficient rats by Ikarashi Y1, Iizuka S, Imamura S, Yamaguchi T, Sekiguchi K, Kanno H, Kawakami Z, Yuzurihara M, Kase Y, Takeda S.(PubMed)
(725) Screening of Korean herbal medicines used to improve cognitive function for anti-cholinesterase activity by Oh MH1, Houghton PJ, Whang WK, Cho JH.(PubMed)
(726) Neuroprotective effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on cognition deficits of diabetic encephalopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. by Liu JP1, Feng L, Zhang MH, Ma DY, Wang SY, Gu J, Fu Q, Qu R, Ma SP.(PubMed)
(727) Liuwei Dihuang decoction facilitates the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in senescence accelerated mouse/prone 8 (SAMP8) hippocampal slices by inhibiting voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) and promoting N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptors by Huang Y1, Zhang H, Yang S, Qiao H, Zhou W, Zhang Y(PubMed)
(728) Determination of the effectiveness of components of the herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San and fractions of Angelica acutiloba in improving the scopolamine-induced impairment of rat's spatial cognition in eight-armed radial maze test. by Hatip-Al-Khatib I1, Egashira N, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, Iwasaki K, Kurauchi K, Inui K, Ikeda T, Fujiwara M.(PubMed)
(729) A modified preparation (LMK03) of the oriental medicine Jangwonhwan reduces Abeta(1-42) level in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer disease by Seo JS1, Jung EY, Kim JH, Lyu YS, Han PL, Kang HW.(PubMed)
(730) A modified preparation (LMK03) of the oriental medicine Jangwonhwan reduces Abeta(1-42) level in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer disease by Seo JS1, Jung EY, Kim JH, Lyu YS, Han PL, Kang HW.(PubMed)
(731) A modified formulation of Chinese traditional medicine improves memory impairment and reduces Aβ level in the Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by Jeon S1, Bose S, Hur J, Jun K, Kim YK, Cho KS, Koo BS.(PubMed)