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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine
B.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842), changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842).
2.4. Sang shen
Sang Shen also known as Mulberry or Morus Fruit, the sweet, sour and cold herb has been used in TCM as antioxidant(968)(969), antiinflammatory(969), anti ageing(991) and neuroprotective(968)(970) agents and to treat vertigo, tinnitus, insomnia, atherosclerosis(971)(973), vascular smooth muscle cells(972), lipid accumulation(974), weak digestion, premature white hair, thirst(967), diabetes(967), diarrhea, etc., as it nourishes Yin, and Blood, promotes generation of Body Fluid, moistens the Intestines, etc. by enhancing the functions of heart, liver and kidney channels(975).
6. Vtamin C
8. Linoleic acid
9. Stearic acid
Herbal sang shen used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(977) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(968)(970) through anti oxidative stress(968)(969), anti inflammatory(969) and anti excitotoxic (involved Alzheimer's disease) mechanisms(978) against cell membrane damage and mitochondrial function induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and glutamate-induced cell death(977).
1. In aging Alzheimer's disease(ADs)
Decreased the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase caused by oxidative stress(979), alanine aminotransferase(980), triglyceride(981) and total cholesterol(982) due to ageing have shown to involve in the development of Alzheimer's disease. In ageing animals, mulberry extracts (ME), rich in phenolics and anthocyanins, significantly demonstrated less amyloid beta protein and improved learning and memory ability through its antioxidant enzymes and reduction of oxidative damage(983).
Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) fraction extracted from sang shen effectively protected primary cortical neurons in 7 days, against glutamate-induced cell death cause of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease(ADs(978) in rat model(984).
2. In Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD), is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders as results of dopaminergic deafferentation of the basal ganglia)(985) and oxidative stress(986)(987).
According to Kyung Hee University, 70 % ethanol extract of mulberry fruit(ME), in dose-dependent manner, in vitro and in vivo PD models showed to prevent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage(999), through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, in regulating reactive oxygen species and NO generation(988).
3. Neuroprotective effects
Cyanidin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (C3G) found abundantly in the mulberry fruits exerted significantly exhibited its cytoprotective effect on PC12 cells(derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla) under oxidative stress induced neuro-degenerative diseases(983)(989). In neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, caused by cerebral ischemia, mulberry leaves (ML) exhibited neuroprotectiveactions in reduced the cytotoxicity in the PC12 cells against oxygen glucose deprivation with enhanced accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(990).
4. In memory improvement
In mice model, mulberry fruits extract, significantly increased pre- and post-synapse formation(992), acetylcholine synthesisation(993), neuronal cell differentiation(994), neurite outgrowth(995) and neuronal cell proliferation(996) in the hippocampus, against loss of memory through its antioxidant in protecting or enhanced neuronal functions mediated by neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF)(991). According to National Chung Hsing University, in memory deterioration in ageing animals, phenolics and anthocyanins, from mulberry fruits, inhibited amyloid beta protein(998) and improved learning and memory ability through induced higher antioxidant enzyme activity and less lipid oxidation in both the brainand liver(997).
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(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)
(969) Combined treatment of mulberry leaf and fruit extract ameliorates obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice by Lim HH1, Yang SJ, Kim Y, Lee M, Lim Y.(PubMed)
(970) [Primary study on protective effect of mulberry extracts on Abeta25-35-induced PC12 cells injury].[Article in Chinese] by Song N1, Pang W, Yang H, Tan L, Fu J, Li H, Jiang Y.(PubMed)
(971) Mulberry water extracts inhibit rabbit atherosclerosis through stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis via activating p53 and regulating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways by Chan KC1, Ho HH, Lin MC, Wu CH, Huang CN, Chang WC, Wang CJ.(PubMed)
(972) Impact of polyphenolic components from mulberry on apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells by Chan KC1, Ho HH, Lin MC, Huang CN, Huang HP, Wang CJ.(PubMed)
(973) Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells by Xu L1, Liu JT, Liu N, Lu PP, Pang XM.(PubMed)
(974) Blueberry and mulberry juice prevent obesity development in C57BL/6 mice by Wu T1, Tang Q, Gao Z, Yu Z, Song H, Zheng X, Chen W.(PubMed)
(975) Sang Shen(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(976) Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia by Kaewkaen P1, Tong-Un T, Wattanathorn J, Muchimapura S, Kaewrueng W, Wongcharoenwanakit S.(PubMed)
(985) Biology of Parkinson's disease: pathogenesis and pathophysiology of a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder by Garrett E. Alexander, MD; PhD*(PMC)
(986) The role of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease by Dias V1, Junn E, Mouradian MM.(PubMed)
(987) Oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease by Jenner P1.(PubMed)
(988) Mulberry fruit protects dopaminergic neurons in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease models by Kim HG1, Ju MS, Shim JS, Kim MC, Lee SH, Huh Y, Kim SY, Oh MS.(PubMed)
(989) Neuroprotective effects of the cyanidin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside isolated from mulberry fruit against cerebral ischemia by Kang TH1, Hur JY, Kim HB, Ryu JH, Kim SY.(PubMed)
(990) Enhancement of neuroprotection of mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) prepared by the anaerobic treatment against ischemic damage by Kang TH1, Oh HR, Jung SM, Ryu JH, Park MW, Park YK, Kim SY.(PubMed)
(991) Memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus via induction of nerve growth factor by Kim HG1, Oh MS.(PubMed)
(992) Loss of Presenilin Function Causes Impairments of Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Followed by Age-Dependent Neurodegeneration, Carlos A Saura1, Se-Young Choi2, Vassilios Beglopoulos1, Seema Malkani1, Dawei Zhang1, 2, B.S.Shankaranarayana Rao3, Sumantra Chattarji3, Raymond J Kelleher III4,Eric R Kandel5, Karen Duff6, Alfredo Kirkwood2, Jie Shen, 1, (Science direct)
(993) Lost memories might be able to be restored, new UCLA study indicates(UCLA Newsroom)
(994) Neural stem cells improve memory in an inducible mouse model of neuronal loss. by Yamasaki TR1, Blurton-Jones M, Morrissette DA, Kitazawa M, Oddo S, LaFerla FM.(PubMed)
(995) Abeta(25-35)-induced memory impairment, axonal atrophy, and synaptic loss are ameliorated by M1, A metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type saponins by Tohda C1, Matsumoto N, Zou K, Meselhy MR, Komatsu K.(PubMed)