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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine
A. In General herbal Chinese medicine
According to the Unilever R&D Shanghai, and Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Dr. and the team of researchers, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in 3000 years' literary history, the top 5 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos(720), Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae have been used extensively for treatment of dementia(*).
A.2. Radix polygalae(Yuan Zhi)
Yuan Zhi, sweet and slightly cool herb is also known as Thinleaf Milkwort Root, used in TCM as antibiotic property, anti-viral property(732), anti cancer(734) and anti depression(733) agents in treating hepatitis B, tumors in the digestive, respiratory systems and in the uterus, etc., as it calms the heart, transforms phlegm, resolves furuncle and oedema, expel toxin, etc. by enhancing the functions of spleen, lung and liver channels.
1. Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK)
2. Polysaccharopeptides (PSP)
4. Onjisaponin B
Yuan Zhi used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(719) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in ameliorated amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits(735). In aging related dementia, based on the history of use, and pharmacological investigation, Yuan Zhi showed a strong evidence in memory improving, including cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities(736). Palmul-chongmyeong-tang, a traditional Chinese medicine formula containing Yuan zhi, exhibited improvement of learning and memory deficits, through reduction of loss of cholinergic immunoreactivity induced by cerebral ischemia(737).
1. In Alzheimer's disease (AD)
In free radical involved neuro-degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), pretreament with Paeng-Jo-Yeon-Nyeon-Baek-Ja-In-Hwan (PJBH) prescription significantly exhibited cytoprotective effects, through elevating cell survival, antioxidant enzyme activities and resulted ecreased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) associated to Alzheimer's disease (AD)(738). Smart Soup (SS), composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum RadixPini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), in oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD in animal model, effectively reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss(739).
2. In Parkinson's disease
Mutant Huntingtin gene caused by a poly-glutamine expansion in huntingtin( 740)and A53T α-synuclein, a protein found abundantly in the human brain, at the tips of nerve cells (neurons)(741) have shown to be associated with the development of Huntington disease and Parkinson disease. Yuan Zhi phytochemical, onjisaponin B and ethanol extracts showed to induce autophagy(743) through signalling pathway in participation of regulation of vascular function(742) in protection of cells against pro-neuro apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway(744). According to college ofPharmacy and Kyung Hee East-West Pharmaceutical Research Institute, in mouse models of Parkinson's disease, Yuan Zhi also exhibited it protective effects on dopaminergic neurons induced by toxicity(745).
3. In Huntington diseases
Mutant Hungtintin caused of degradation of long-lived cytoplasmic proteins, protein complexes (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane)(747), or damaged organelles(tiny structures that perform very specific functions within cells)(748) attenuated autophagy in association of the development of Huntington diseases(746), Onjisaponin B, found in Yuan Zhi, effectively induced autophagy through its acceleration of both the removal of mutant huntingtin and and α-synuclein in PC-12 cells(749), which contain mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells(750).
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(*) Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia by Zhihong Lin,1 Jie Gu,1 Jin Xiu,1 Tingyan Mi,1 Jie Dong,1 and Jyoti Kumar Tiwari2(Hindawi)
(719) Chinese herbs for dementia diseases by Hügel HM1, Jackson N, May BH, Xue CC.(PubMed)
(732) First report of anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of the medicinal plant Polygala decumbens from the Brazilian semi-arid region, Caatinga by Frasson AP1, dos Santos O, Duarte M, da Silva Trentin D, Giordani RB, da Silva AG, da Silva MV, Tasca T, Macedo AJ.(PubMed)
(733) Potential antidepressant properties of Radix Polygalae (Yuan Zhi) by Liu P1, Hu Y, Guo DH, Wang DX, Tu HH, Ma L, Xie TT, Kong LY.(PubMed)
(734) High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. by Mazzio E1, Badisa R, Mack N, Deiab S, Soliman KF.(PubMed)
(735) Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits by Hou Y1, Wang Y2, Zhao J1, Li X1, Cui J1, Ding J2, Wang Y3, Zeng X1, Ling Y4, Shen X5, Chen S2, Huang C4, Pei G6.(PubMed)
(736) Traditional chinese medicine for senile dementia by Lin Z1, Gu J, Xiu J, Mi T, Dong J, Tiwari JK.(PubMed)
(737) Neuroprotective effect of palmul-chongmyeong-tang on ischemia-induced learning and memory deficits in the rat. by Yun YJ1, Lee B, Hahm DH, Kang SK, Han SM, Lee HJ, Pyun KH, Shim I.(PubMed)
(738) Traditional chinese medicine for senile dementia by Lin Z1, Gu J, Xiu J, Mi T, Dong J, Tiwari JK. (PubMed)
(739) Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits by Hou Y1, Wang Y2, Zhao J1, Li X1, Cui J1, Ding J2, Wang Y3, Zeng X1, Ling Y4, Shen X5, Chen S2, Huang C4, Pei G6.(PubMed)
(740) Allele-specific silencing of mutant Huntington’s disease gene by Yu Zhang, Joshua Engelman, and Robert M. Friedlander*(PubMed)
(742) Perivascular fat-mediated vascular dysfunction and remodeling through the AMPK/mTOR pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats by Liqun Ma1,2, Shuangtao Ma1,2, Hongbo He1, Dachun Yang1, Xiaoping Chen1, Zhidan Luo1, Daoyan Liu1 and Zhiming Zhu1(Hypertension research)
(743) Onjisaponin B derived from Radix Polygalae enhances autophagy and accelerates the degradation of mutant α-synuclein and huntingtin in PC-12 cells by Wu AG1, Wong VK, Xu SW, Chan WK, Ng CI, Liu L, Law BY.(PubMed)
(744) Trehalose, a novel mTOR-independent autophagy enhancer, accelerates the clearance of mutant huntingtin and alpha-synuclein by Sarkar S1, Davies JE, Huang Z, Tunnacliffe A, Rubinsztein DC.(PubMed)
(745) Polygalae radix inhibits toxin-induced neuronal death in the Parkinson's disease models. by Choi JG1, Kim HG, Kim MC, Yang WM, Huh Y, Kim SY, Oh MS.(PubMed)
(746) Huntington's disease: degradation of mutant huntingtin by autophagy by Sarkar S1, Rubinsztein DC.(PubMed)
(748) What are Organelles?(Wisegreek)
(749) Onjisaponin B derived from Radix Polygalae enhances autophagy and accelerates the degradation of mutant α-synuclein and huntingtin in PC-12 cells by Wu AG1, Wong VK, Xu SW, Chan WK, Ng CI, Liu L, Law BY.(PubMed)
(750) PC12 cell line(Wikipedia)