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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Treatments In Herbal Medicine prospective
Phytochemicals have been studied intensively including
1. Cannabinoids (e.g. cannabidiol) from Cannabis sativa, may be emerging as potential therapeutic agents for treatment of symptoms of dementia(686)(687). In Alzheimer's disease. the phytochemicals have found effectively against multifactorial illnesses as Alzheimer's disease, through inhibition of BuChE(689) and AChE(690) enzymes by a non-competitive or mixed mechanism(688).
2. Resveratrol (occurs in various plants) showed to improve cognition and reduces oxidative stress, by promoting learning and memory ability in vascular dementia(692) and decrease malonyldialdehyde levels(691). In Alzheimer's Disease, the phytochemical exerted its neuroprotective effect(694)(695), in decreased Aβ accumulation, tau protein phosphorylation, oxidative stress(693), and may be used for aging population in the prevention of various age-related neurological disorders(694).
3. Curcumin (from turmeric [Curcuma longa]), in pharmacological activities, besides promoted cognition and mood in a healthy older population(695), it also exhibited beneficial role in several neurodegenerative disorders(696) against administered streptozotocin (STZ)induced dementia model(696)(698), probably through its antioxidant effect(697). In Alzheimer's Disease, the herb also showed in reversed cognitive deficits, through its function in decreased GSK-3β levels(Glycogen synthase kinase 3, a protein) related to onset of Alzheimer's Disease(699)), and increased promoter activity of the TCF/LEF in binding DNA(600) and cyclin-D1(a protein) in regulating cell cycle progression(701).
4. Crocetin, a phytochemical found in Saffron (Crocus sativus), protected cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia, by improving spatial learning memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in animal study(703) through its antioxidant effects(704) in decreased oxidative stress(704). According to The University of Tokyo, the effectiveness of the herbal phytochemicals crocetin and crocin, also enhanced learning behaviour and promoted memory recall(705). In severe Alzheimer's Disease and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease patients, saffron extract showed to be comparable with memantine in reducing cognitive decline in 1 year(706) and reduce cognitive decline in 22 weeks administration(707), respectively.
5. Ginseng (Panax species), showed to be beneficiary on age-related cognitive impairments through the activities of its members of ginsenosides(708) and Non-ginsenoside nicotinic agents(709).
6. Sage (Salvia species), may also be used as a potential novel natural treatments for the relief of some diseases including dementia, according to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(710).
But according to Jodrell Laboratory, the use of such remedies in complex mixtures of different plants in traditional folk medicine may induce complication in interpretation of pharmacological activity and challenges for quality control(702).
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(686) Cannabinoids for pain in dementia: the good, the bad, and the ugly by Ahmed AI1, van den Elsen GA, van der Marck MA, Olde Rikkert MG.(PubMed)
(687) [Pain management for opioid-dependent patients: can cannabinoids be an option?].[Article in French] by Broers B.(PubMed)
(688) Cannabinoid agonists showing BuChE inhibition as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease by González-Naranjo P1, Pérez-Macias N1, Campillo NE1, Pérez C1, Arán VJ1, Girón R2, Sánchez-Robles E2, Martín MI2, Gómez-Cañas M3, García-Arencibia M3,Fernández-Ruiz J3, Páez JA4.(PubMed)
(689) Cannabinoid agonists showing BuChE inhibition as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease by González-Naranjo P1, Pérez-Macias N1, Campillo NE1, Pérez C1, Arán VJ1, Girón R2, Sánchez-Robles E2, Martín MI2, Gómez-Cañas M3, García-Arencibia M3,Fernández-Ruiz J3, Páez JA4.(PubMed)
(690) Resveratrol improves cognition and reduces oxidative stress in rats with vascular dementia. by Ma X1, Sun Z2, Liu Y1, Jia Y1, Zhang B1, Zhang J2.(PubMed)
(691) Resveratrol improves cognition and reduces oxidative stress in rats with vascular dementia. by Ma X1, Sun Z2, Liu Y1, Jia Y1, Zhang B1, Zhang J2.(PubMed)
(692) Effects of resveratrol on apoptosis in a rat model of vascular dementia by Sun ZK1, Ma XR2, Jia YJ2, Liu YR2, Zhang JW1, Zhang BA2.(PubMed)
(693) Resveratrol as a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease by Ma T1, Tan MS2, Yu JT3, Tan L3.(PubMed)
(694) Therapeutic potential of resveratrol in Alzheimer's disease. by Vingtdeux V1, Dreses-Werringloer U, Zhao H, Davies P, Marambaud P.(PubMed)
(695) Roles of resveratrol and other grape-derived polyphenols in Alzheimer's disease prevention and treatment. by Pasinetti GM1, Wang J2, Ho L2, Zhao W2, Dubner L3.(PubMed)
(696) Effect of curcumin on brain insulin receptors and memory functions in STZ (ICV) induced dementia model of rat by Agrawal R1, Mishra B, Tyagi E, Nath C, Shukla R.(PubMed)
(697) A study of brain insulin receptors, AChE activity and oxidative stress in rat model of ICV STZ induced dementia by Agrawal R1, Tyagi E, Shukla R, Nath C.(PubMed)
(698) Insulin receptor signaling in rat hippocampus: a study in STZ (ICV) induced memory deficit model by Agrawal R1, Tyagi E, Shukla R, Nath C.(PubMed)
(700) TCF/LEF family(Wikipedia)
(701) Cyclin D1(Wikipedia)
(702) The role of phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of dementia. by Howes MJ1, Perry E.(PubMed)
(703) Crocetin attenuates spatial learning dysfunction and hippocampal injury in a model of vascular dementia by Tashakori-Sabzevar F1, Hosseinzadeh H, Motamedshariaty VS, Movassaghi AR, Mohajeri SA.(PubMed)
(704) Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on recognition and spatial memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats by Hosseinzadeh H1, Sadeghnia HR, Ghaeni FA, Motamedshariaty VS, Mohajeri SA.(PubMed)
(705) Effects of saffron extract and its constituent crocin on learning behaviour and long-term potentiation by Abe K1, Saito H.(PubMed)
(706) Comparing the efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. with memantine in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: a double-blind randomized clinical trial by Farokhnia M1, Shafiee Sabet M, Iranpour N, Gougol A, Yekehtaz H, Alimardani R, Farsad F, Kamalipour M, Akhondzadeh S.(PubMed)
(707) A 22-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease by Akhondzadeh S1, Shafiee Sabet M, Harirchian MH, Togha M, Cheraghmakani H, Razeghi S, Hejazi SS, Yousefi MH, Alimardani R, Jamshidi A, Rezazadeh SA,Yousefi A, Zare F, Moradi A, Vossoughi A.(PubMed)
(708) Non-ginsenoside nicotinic activity in ginseng species. by Lewis R1, Wake G, Court G, Court JA, Pickering AT, Kim YC, Perry EK.(PubMed)
(709) The role of phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of dementia by Howes MJ1, Perry E.(PubMed)
(710) Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia) to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer by Hamidpour M1, Hamidpour R2, Hamidpour S2, Shahlari M2.(PubMed)