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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder induced of cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, with a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities, affecting a person's ability to perform usual tasks in everyday life.
Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine
B.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842), changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842)..
Herbal medicine for Heart Qi deficiency
3. Xi yang shen(946),
Yin in nature, the sweet, slightly bitter, cool herb has been used in TCM to treat fatigue(947)(948), diabetes(949), cardiovascular diseases(950)(951) and atopic diseases(952), promote saliva, quench thirst(949)(950), due to yang deficiency of lungs, by enhancing the lung and spleen qi, through increasing the digestive system in absorbing vital energy and reducing the heat causes of qi stagnation through Heart, Lung, Kidney channels.
3. α Phellandrene
4. β Phellandrene
10. Insensole oxide
11. Ginseng Saponins: ginsenoside -R0, -Rb1, -Rb2, -Rb3, -Rc, -Rd, -Re, -Rf, -Rg1, -Rg2, -Rg3, -Rh1, -RA0, quinquenoside R1, gypenoside X1, F3, F11.
Herbal xi yang shen used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(953) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in ameliorated amyloid pathology(953) causes of neuro cells apoptosis(954) and related cognitive deficits(955).
3.1. In Alzheimer's disease
In Alzheimer's disease cell model, induced by Abeta25-35, water extracts ofAmerican Ginseng (WEAG), exerted neuroprotective effects of SH-SY5, a human derived cell line against cells apoptosi(954). Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), a main component found in American ginseng, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice model, induced by scopolamine, morphine and methamphetamine, significantly mitigated learning and memory impairment in 15 days, through inhibited the expressions of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ1-40 in the cortex and hippocampus, restored the activities of antioxidants in decreased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), a indicators of lipid peroxidation (953).
3.2. In Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease
In neurodegeneration-like Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease rat model, induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). preparation of American ginseng leaves and stems significantly reduced brain degeneration through its active phytochemicals, ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb3 and Rd(958), according to Baylor College of Medicine and Austin State University(957). Ginsengsaponins, an active ingredients found in ginseng species, including American ginseng also exerted beneficial effects on aging, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases through mediated protective mechanisms, including attenuated free radicals(959)(960).
3.3. In Neuroprotective effects
Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), a phytochemical of Panax quinquefolism (American ginseng) showed to exhibit its neuroprotective effect against impraired locomotor(962) on methamphetamine (MA)-induced behavioral and neurochemical toxicities in mice(964) and in Parkinson's disease (PD) of rat model, by evoked neuronal excitability and mediated the increased release of glutamate(962), motor balance, coordination, and apomorphine-induced rotation, through inhibiting free radical formation and stimulating endogenous antioxidant release(961). According to the State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, water extracts of American Ginseng(WEAG) also exerted its neuroprotective effect on SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35, in Alzheimer's Disease cellular model(963).
3.4. In Cognitive impairment
Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation, elevated oxidative stress, and apoptosis of the neurons have shown to induce the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11) found abundantly in American ginseng, exhibited recognitive improvement effect in mouse model, through its antioxidant status in inhibition of amyloidogenesis and oxidative stress and enhancement of neuronal functions(965) as well as ameliorated cognitiveimpairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations caused by accumulation of intercellular messenger, nitric oxide (NO)(966).
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(*) Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia by Zhihong Lin,1 Jie Gu,1 Jin Xiu,1 Tingyan Mi,1 Jie Dong,1 and Jyoti Kumar Tiwari2(Hindawi)
(946) American Ginseng, xi yang shen(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(947) Anti-fatigue effects of proteins isolated from Panax quinquefolium. by Qi B1, Liu L1, Zhang H1, Zhou GX1, Wang S1, Duan XZ1, Bai XY1, Wang SM1, Zhao DQ2.(PubMed)
(948) American ginseng does not improve fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a single center randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover pilot study. by Kim E1, Cameron M, Lovera J, Schaben L, Bourdette D, Whitham R.(PubMed)
(949) American Ginseng Extract (Panax quinquefolius L.) Is Safe in Long-Term Use in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. by Mucalo I1, Jovanovski E2, Vuksan V3, Božikov V4, Romić Z5, Rahelić D4.(PubMed)
(950) Therapeutic potential of ginseng in the management of cardiovascular disorders by Karmazyn M1, Moey M, Gan XT.(PubMed)
(951)North American ginseng exerts a neutral effect on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension by Stavro PM1, Woo M, Heim TF, Leiter LA, Vuksan V.(PubMed)
(952) Compound CVT-E002 attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, in vivo by Ebeling C1, Wu Y, Skappak C, Gordon JR, Ilarraza R, Adamko DJ.(PubMed)
(953) Anti-amnesic effect of pseudoginsenoside-F11 in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease by Wang CM1, Liu MY, Wang F, Wei MJ, Wang S, Wu CF, Yang JY.(PubMed)
(954) [Neuroprotective effects of water extracts of American Ginseng on SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35].[Article in Chinese] by Hu SQ1, Yu HM, Liu TS, Yang DJ, Chen XZ, He CJ.(PubMed)
(955) HT1001, a proprietary North American ginseng extract, improves working memory in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study by Chen EY1, Hui CL.(PubMed)
(956) Modulation of nitrergic signalling pathway by American ginseng attenuates chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations by Rinwa P1, Kumar A.(PubMed)
(957) Ginseng compounds may fight Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease(Northest Parkinson foundation)
(958) Ginseng Substances Fight Brain Disease In Rats(Bio space)
(959) Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington's disease by Sunayna Choudhary1, Puneet Kumar2, Jai Malik1(Phamarcognosy Review)
(960) Use of ginseng in medicine with emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders by Radad K1, Gille G, Liu L, Rausch WD.(PubMed)
(961) Neuroprotective effect of pseudoginsenoside-f11 on a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine by Wang JY1, Yang JY1, Wang F1, Fu SY1, Hou Y1, Jiang B1, Ma J1, Song C1, Wu CF1.(PubMed)
(962) Ginseng derivative ocotillol enhances neuronal activity through increased glutamate release: a possible mechanism underlying increased spontaneous locomotor activity of mice by Wang ZJ1, Sun L, Peng W, Ma S, Zhu C, Fu F, Heinbockel T.(PubMed)
(963) [Neuroprotective effects of water extracts of American Ginseng on SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35].[Article in Chinese] by Hu SQ1, Yu HM, Liu TS, Yang DJ, Chen XZ, He CJ.(PubMed)
(964) Protective effects of pseudoginsenoside-F11 on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice. by Wu CF1, Liu YL, Song M, Liu W, Wang JH, Li X, Yang JY.(PubMed)
(965) Anti-amnesic effect of pseudoginsenoside-F11 in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. by Wang CM1, Liu MY, Wang F, Wei MJ, Wang S, Wu CF, Yang JY.(PubMed)
(966) Modulation of nitrergic signalling pathway by American ginseng attenuates chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations by Rinwa P1, Kumar A.(PubMed)