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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Diseases of Central Nervous system
DementiaAbout 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (810)
C.2. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
C.2.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842).
Herbal medicine for Heart Qi deficiency
Dan Shen is also known as Red Sage Root with taste of the bitter and slightly cold in nature, used in TCM as antithrombotic(845), antihypertonic (lowering blood pressure)(846), antimicrobial(847), anti-inflammatory(848)(849), agent and to treat coronary and cerebrovascular disease, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis, restlessness, insomnia, irritability,(850) etc., by enhancing the functions of heart and liver channels.
4. Methylene tanshiquinone
5. Przewatanshinquinone A
6. Przewatanshinquinone B
8. Dihydrotanshinone I
9. Tanshinol A
10. Tanshinol B
11. Tanshinol C,
13. 1, 2, 15, 16-tetrahydrotanshiquinone
14. Danshensuan A, B, C
15. Protocatechuic acid,
16. Protocatechuic aldehyde
According to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, dan shen in the pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, showed to exert its neuroprotective activity through antiparkinsonian, relaxant, analgesic and memory enhancing(850). In PC12 cells, combination application of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, effectively inhibited the formation of amyloid fibrils and protected PC12 cells(855) from beta-AP25-35-induced cytotoxicity and ROS accumulation(854).
1.2. Alzheimer's disease (AD)
Simple poly hydroxycinnamic acids and diterpenoid quinone, showed to improve cognitive deficits in mice model, through protection of neuronal cells, prevention of amyloid fibril formation and preformed amyloid fibril disaggregation related to Alzheimer's disease(851). Salvianolic acid B (Sal B)isolated from dan shen, in animal model, not only prevented Abeta-induced cytotoxicity(857) but also improved cognitive deficits and protection of neuronal cells(852), through its effects on suppressing the production of ROS, calcium flux, and apoptosis(853) and promoted amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism toward the non-amyloidogenic products pathway in cortical neuronal cell(856) and multifunctional machenisms(857). Compound Danshen Tablets (CDST), in rat model, exhibited spatial cognitive protection through decreased beta-APP expression in the cortex and hippocampus, detected via immunohistochemistry(859).
1.3. In learning and memory impairment
In diabetic rats model, dan shen injection improved the learning and memory decline, through upregulation of expression of MKP-1 in reduced inflammation(861) under hyperglycemia(860). HX106N, a Chimese herbal formula, containing dan shen, in Aβ25-35 peptide mice, enhanced on memory impairment and oxidative stress through increased levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)(862). In a joint study of renowned institutions, in mouse model, myelophil, a combination of extracts taken from Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, significantly exhibited its anti-amnesic properties in memory impairment, through the modulation of cholinergic activity(863). Tanshinones, a group of diterpenoids found in dan shen, improved learning and memory impairments, through its inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase(864)
1.4. In neuroprotective effects
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), one of the major active constituents of dan shen exerted its neuroprotective effects, by inhibiting transcription and translation of genes involved AD development(858). In neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) contributed Alzheimer's disease (AD), dan shen extract suppressed the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, through deduction of decreased the protein expression involved in the development of neurodegenerative disease, including ADs(865). According to Eur J Pharmacol and University of Sydney, salvianolic acid B (SalB), in mouse model, exhibited neuroprotective effects in an amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-induced Alzheimer's disease, through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects(866) and ameliorated cholinergic dysfunction- or Aβ(25-35)-induced memory impairment(867), respectively.
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Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine by Kyle J. Norton