Tuesday, 17 February 2015

(4th edited )Most common diseases of Elders- Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Herbal Wolfberry (Gou Qi) treatments of Dementia Caused by Blood Stasis

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                      Diseases of Central Nervous system


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)
 C.4.1. Dementia due to Blood Stasis
According to Chinese medical literaure over 3000 years of history, blood Stasis may be caused by spleen qi deficiency, but in most cases, it is due to heart qi deficiency cause of inability in transport nutrients to the body organs and cells, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting  or death of neurons, cognitive impairments(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842). Blood statsis induced by cold(1142), emotional disorder(1143), aging(1144), chronic illnesses and consumptive disease(1145), can overload the heart capacity, contributing to long-term hypertension(1146) due to decreased or impeded blood flow(1147) causes of hypo-perfusion in cerebral blood flow or acute focal stroke in memory-related cerebral parenchyma induced progression of cognitive decline(*).

Herbal medicine for treatment of Blood stasis
1. Wolfberry (Gou qi)
Gou Qi, the sweet and neutral herb is also known as wolfberry, used in TCM as anti cancers(1148)(1149), antioxidative(1150)(1151) and anti aging(1156)(1157) agent and to treat back, leg, and stomach pain(1152), hypopigmentation(1154), improve vision(1153)(1154), diabetes(1155), premature aging(1156), enhance immune system(1157), lower blood lipids(1158), elevate level of testosterone(1159), simulate estrogen and anti estrogen effect through different estrogen receptor mechanisms(1160) etc., as it nourishes and tonifies Liver and Kidneys, moistens the Lungs, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver, lung and kidney channels(1161). 

1. Betaine
2. β-sitosterol
3. Linoleic acid
4. Physalien
5. Cryptoxanthin
6. Atropine
7. Hyoscyamine
8. Scopoletin
9. Amino acids
10. Physalein
11. Zeaxanthin
12. Dipalmitate
13. Carotene
14. Etc.

1.1.  In Alzheimer's disease(AD)
 Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have shown to be associated to increased the risk of Alzheime's disease (AD), epidemiologically and clinically. Polysaccharides, phytochemicals derived from wolfberry (LBA) not only inhibited Abeta accumulation but also reduced risk of other factors induced AD(1162). According to the University of Hong Kong, the chemical olysaccharides, also ameliorated glutamate excitotoxicity involved in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1163). The herbal alkaline extract was found to exhibit neuroprotection, through inhibiting Abeta-peptides induced apoptosis and neuronal cell death(1164).

1.2. In neuroprotective effects
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), on focal cerebral ischemic injury in mice model, inhibited neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway(1165). In ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage, chemical Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), reduced apoptosis and a decrease number of viable cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner nuclear layer (INL), through its  antioxidant activity(1166), In PC12 cell, Lycium barbarum extracts inhibited neurotoxin  induced Parkinson's disease-like syndrome, through increased intracellular Ca (2+) level and significantly cell viability and cellular ATP levels(1167).

1.3. In cognitive impairment
In prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, Lycium barbarum showed to inhibit brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction, through its scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals(1168). Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription, containing Lycium, showed to enhance neuroprotective effects in attenuation of memory impairment, probably through its anti-inflammatory activities(1169).

1.4. In learning and memory
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, scopolamine (SCO-induced cognitive and memory deficits in rats model, ameliorated and suppressed oxidative stress in hippocampus, and neurons apoptosis(1170). On transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, Gou qi extracts at 10 mg/kg improved the performance of  the learning and the memory retrieval phases of tested models, through reduced levels of Aβ(1-42) in hippocampal tissue(1171). According to Kyung Hee University, Lycium chinense fruit, in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neuronal and cognitive impairment rats model, improved learning and memory deficit in impaired learning and memory scores(1172).

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(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(1142) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24288569 
(1143) http://www.classicalchinesemedicine.org/2010/03/blood-blood-stasis-and-blood-path-disorders/
(1144) http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2250018.Aging_Blood_Stasis 
(1145) http://www.tcvm.com/NewsArticles/TabId/245/ArtMID/1382/ArticleID/97/A-Look-at-Blood-Stasis.aspx 
(1147) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23893237
(1148) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23817098
(1149) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12561612
(1150) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972978
(1151) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25603493
(1152) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22483979
(1153) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22567031
(1154) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21169874
(1155) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25381995
(1156) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=wolfberry+aging
(1157) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25552899
(1158) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673056
(1159) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077258
(1160) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19373615
(1161) http://alternativehealing.org/qi_zi.htm
(1162) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20157238
(1163) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19499323
(1164) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17568570
(1165) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595452
(1166) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24400114
(1167) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24228605
(1168) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20131093
(1169) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22020275
(1170) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505383
(1171) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23737913
(1172) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110372

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