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By Kyle J. Norton
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Gout mostly effected one joint is defined as a acute and recurrent condition of arthritis as a result of uric acid builds up in blood cause of joint inflammation.
According to a cross-sectional survey of a total of 6584 adults (3394 women, 3190 men) conducted by Second Military Medical University, on prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and gout showed that symptoms occurred more frequently in the following sites:
1. Knee 7.0%
2. Lower back 5.6%(95% CI 5.0-6.2%),
3. Shoulder 4.7%
4. Neck 2.4%
Women complained of rheumatic symptoms more frequently than men. In fact, symptoms are quite noticeable, you may feel well when you go to bed but wake up during the night with intense pain in one or few joints and sometime with fever. The symptoms may go away in a few days, but can return from time to time. Chronic gout can cause lumps below the skin around joints.
a. Alcohol consumption.
b. Meat intake, seafood intake, sugar sweetened soft drinks, and consumption of foods high in fructose.
c. Thiazide and loop diuretics.
d. Hypertension, renal insufficiency, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, obesity, and early menopause.(2).
a. Higher adiposity and weight gain are strong risk factors for gout in men,
b. Hypertension and diuretic use are also important independent risk factors for gout(5).
c. Obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome(6).
d. Chronic renal failure.
A. The Do’s and Do not’s list
2. Maintaining adequate fluid intake
Dehydrate is associated with the increased risk of gout. Drinking water or skim milk can improve gout control(10).
3. Weight reduction
Obesity is not only a risk factor for incident gout but is associated with an earlier age at gout onset(11).
4. Dietary changes
a. Reduce alcohol
Alcohol intake is strongly associated with an increased risk of gout. This risk varies substantially according to type of alcoholic beverage: beer confers a larger risk than spirits, whereas moderate wine drinking does not increase the risk(12).
b. Reduce intake of foods with high levels of purine, such as sardines, herring, kidney and sweetbreads, shrimp, etc. (14).
5. Reduce intake of medications which can cause gout by reviewing them with your doctor, such as Thiazide and loop diuretics.
“Exercises to relieve gout should be done steady and cautiously as to avoid further irritation to the joints. The best exercises for gout are range of motion types: strength training, stretching and building endurance such as yoga 14a)
B. Phytochemicals to prevent Gout
1. Quercetin and Rutin
According to Nanjing University, quercetin and rutin inhibited gout and hyperuricemia through theirs promotion of liver absorption and metabolism(15).
Morin (3,5,7,2′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone), a phytochemical found in the twigs of Morus alba L. documented in traditional Chinese medicinal literature to treat conditions akin to gout exert potent inhibitory action on urate uptake in rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles(16).
3. Other phytichemicals
Other phytochemicals, such as puerarin, myricetin, and kaempferol significantly reduced liver uric acid level in hyperuricemic animals(17).
A. In conventional medicine perspective
a. Acetaminophen such as Tylenol can help to relive the pain of Gout.
b. Side effects if overdose are not limit to
b.1. Nausea and vomiting
b.2. Appetite loss
b.6. Abdominal pain
A.2. The options available for the treatment of acute gout (18)may include
Ingested NSAIDs may cause
b.1. Nonspecific colitis (in particular, fenemates)
b.2. Large intestinal ulcers, bleeding, and perforation
b.3. Classic inflammatory bowel disease and contribute to serious complications of diverticular disease (fistula and perforation)
b.4. Small intestinal perforation, ulcers, and strictures requiring surgery.
b.5. Small intestinal inflammation
b.6. Complications of blood loss and protein loss (19).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) caused
Pronounced side effects, and the mortality was 4.9% with common complications of infections, septic infections, pneumonias, and urinary and gastrointestinal infections as well as arterial hypertension, osteoporosis, hypokalaemic alkalosis, and other marked electrolyte disturbances (21).
B. In herbal medicine perspective
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaves inhibited XO with only minimal inhibitory action at 100 microg/mL but the intraperitoneal injection of luteolin, an aqueous ALE, caffeic acid derivatives showed a decrease in uric acid levels(22).
2. Green teas
Epigallo catechin-O-gallate (EGCG), found abundantly in green tea, inhibited various diseases such as dermatosis, gout, atherosclerosis and cancer, through its anti-oxidant properties via antagonistic action in some inflammatory processes(23).
In the article by By jeffwend, alfalfa reduced the amount of uric acid available to crystallize through increase uric acid levels in the urine(24).
4. Devil’s claw
Harpagoside, a Glycoside, the chemical, principle extracted from the Devil’s Claw root, contributes the natural anti-inflammatory properties and may be a potential agent for treatment of gout and other painful disorders of the Musculoskeletal system(25).
5. Purple Sweet Potato
In the study to investigate the hypouricemic effects of a
Anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato (APSP), and allopurinol, in a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg on hyperuricemic mice, reduced the serum uric acid concentration to 4.10 ± 0.04 mg/dL(26).
C. In Traditional Chinese medicine perspectiveAccording to TCM assistant, gout is a condition of a joint painful wind syndrome caused by