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Thursday, 12 February 2015

(4th edited )Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Herbal Peony (Chi Shao) treatments of Dementia Caused by Spleen Qi Deficiency

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)
C.3. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine with function in absoring nutrients and transport them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in  maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).
Herbal medicine for Spleen Qi deficiency
1. Peony (Chi Shao)
Chi Shao or Chi Shao Yao with bitter, sour taste and cool in nature is also known as Peony Root, used in TCM as antispasmodic(1000)(1001), anti-inflammatory(1002)(1003), anti allergic(1004)  antibiotic(1005), anticonvulsant(1006), analgesic(1007), anxiolytic(1008) agent and to lower blood pressure(1009), dilate peripheral blood vessels, coronary arteries against heart attack(1010), treat viral hepatitis(1011), chronic constipation(1012), asthma(1013), whooping cough(1014), diabetes(1015)(1016), etc., as it clears heat, cools blood, eliminates blood accumulation, calms paindilates, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver and spleen channels(1017).

Phytochemicals
1. Essential oil
2. Resin
3. Paeoniflorin
4. Paeonol
5. Paeonin
6. Albiflorin
7. Triterpenoids
8. Sistosterol
9. Oxypaeoniflorin
10. Benzoylpaeoniflorin
11. Benzoic acid
12. β sitosterol
13. Gallotannin
14. Pedunculagin
15. 1-O-Galloylpedunculagin
16. Eugeniin
17. Tannin acid
18. Etc.

Herbal shao yao used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(1018)(1019) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent paeoniflorin, in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1020)(1021) through anti oxidative stress(1022), anti inflammatory(1023), improving neural synapse plasticity(1024) mechanisms, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1025) induced  senile dementia and aging-induced cognitive dysfunction(1026).

1.1. Parkinson's disease PD
Strong evidences suggested that peony, possesses wide pharmacological effects in nervous system(1027)(1028). Paeoniflorin, a phytochemical isolated from peony, in PC12 cells induced by 6-OHDA found in patient with Parkinson's disease(1030),showed to suppress mitochondria apoptosis, through its antioxidant capability in increasing glutathione (GSH)(1032). by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS)(1031). In Parkinson's disease (PD) progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons involved movement and mitochondrial dysfunction, in mouse model, peony significantly inhibited mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, via the regulation of expression of immunity, inhibition of cytochrome C associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.release and caspase-3, a protein encoded by in CASP3 gene, activation(1031). According to University of Miami, polyphenols, included baicalin, baicalein, wogonin (in scutellaria), and paeonol, paeonoside, paeoniflori, found in peony, exerted neuroprotective efficacy, probably through improving cerebral blood circulation, involved alleviation of the symptoms of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)(1033).

1.2. In Alzheimer's disease AD
Abeta42 deposition in hippocampus has shown to induce the brain inflammation causes of early onset of Alzheimer's disease AD(1034)(1035). Paeonol(2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone;1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethan-1-one), found in peony, not only protect the nervous system against accumulation of amyloid peptide, Aβ1-42, through its anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties, but also slowed down in regulated  the pathogenic processes associated with AD, through morphological, biochemical and behavioral activities(1036). Aqueous extract of the dry root of Peony in Abeta((1-42))-induced rats, also inhibited Abeta-induced neurotoxicity, through ameliorated cognitive deficit,  cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manner(1037).

1.3. In cognitive impairment
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with the neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD, Paeoniflorin, isolated from the aqueous extract of peony, in rat model, not only showed to promote the cognitive ability, exhibited anti-depressant-like effect and reduced toxicity, but also attenuated the oxidative stress induced Aβ(1-42) by regulating choline acetyltrasferase and the activity of acetylcholine esterase in the hippocampus of Aβ(1-42)(1038)(1039). In Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, associated with the cognitive deficits of AD, the phytochemical also attenuated cognitive deficit and brain damage through ameliorated astrocytes(star-shaped glial cells in CNS) and microglias(glial cell in CNS) in hippocampus(1040). According to Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, on cerebral infarction induced neurological symptoms, paeoniflorin (PF) significantly reduced the infarct volume causes of cognitive impairment(1041).

1.4. In learning and memory
Supplementation of paeonol extractedfrom peony, in d-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice, significantly improved the learning and memory ability through reduction of oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity, according to China Pharmaceutical University(1042). Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), an herbal formula,  containing peony and 5 other herbs, used to treat gynecological disorders and neural dysfunctions, in the same model study, showed effectively in improved cognitive ability, through ameliorating oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis in the brain(1043). Paeoniflorin, a major constituent of peony, also exhibited its beneficial effect on learning and memory impairment in rodents, by reversed the suppressible effects of adenosine as shown on passive avoidance test and inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP)(1044).

Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton  

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References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(1000) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19050990
(1001) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Peony+spastic
(1002) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22921747
(1003) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19003727
(1004) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18449501
(1005) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22891951
(1006) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18448067
(1007) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24467538
(1008) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15970315
(1009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15015358
(1010) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21112198
(1011) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25479726
(1012) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Peony+constipation
(1013) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25289045
(1014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Peony+coughs
(1015) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9703625
(1016) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045390
(1017) http://alternativehealing.org/bai_shao.htm
(1018) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185921
(1019) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19457098
(1020) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16086036
(1021) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23695964
(1022) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446358
(1023) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25165413
(1024) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23667997
(1025) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21377451
(1026) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7816876 
(1027) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980368
(1028) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23667997
(1028) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16086036
(1029) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9120425
(1030) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446358
(1031) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24389454
(1032) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023341
(1033) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070681
(1035) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9197277
(1036) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9798591
(1037) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268972 
(1038) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715794
(1039) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268972
(1040) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16678139
(1041) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16137717
(1042) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19007942
(1043) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22414474
(1044) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11379768