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Friday, 20 February 2015

Most common diseases of Elders- Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Herbal treatments of Dementia Caused by Blood Stasis

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                      Diseases of Central Nervous system


                           Dementia


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)

 C.4.1. Dementia due to Blood Stasis
According to Chinese medical literaure over 3000 years of history, blood Stasis may be caused by spleen qi deficiency, but in most cases, it is due to heart qi deficiency cause of inability in transport nutrients to the body organs and cells, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting  or death of neurons, cognitive impairments(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842). Blood statsis induced by cold(1142), emotional disorder(1143), aging(1144), chronic illnesses and consumptive disease(1145), can overload the heart capacity, contributing to long-term hypertension(1146) due to decreased or impeded blood flow(1147) causes of hypo-perfusion in cerebral blood flow or acute focal stroke in memory-related cerebral parenchyma induced progression of cognitive decline(*).

Herbal medicine for treatment of Blood stasis
1. Wolfberry (Gou qi)
Gou Qi, the sweet and neutral herb is also known as wolfberry, used in TCM as anti cancers(1148)(1149), antioxidative(1150)(1151) and anti aging(1156)(1157) agent and to treat back, leg, and stomach pain(1152), hypopigmentation(1154), improve vision(1153)(1154), diabetes(1155), premature aging(1156), enhance immune system(1157), lower blood lipids(1158), elevate level of testosterone(1159), simulate estrogen and anti estrogen effect through different estrogen receptor mechanisms(1160) etc., as it nourishes and tonifies Liver and Kidneys, moistens the Lungs, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver, lung and kidney channels(1161). 

Phytochemicals
1. Betaine
2. β-sitosterol
3. Linoleic acid
4. Physalien
5. Cryptoxanthin
6. Atropine
7. Hyoscyamine
8. Scopoletin
9. Amino acids
10. Physalein
11. Zeaxanthin
12. Dipalmitate
13. Carotene
14. Etc.

1.1.  In Alzheimer's disease(AD)
 Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have shown to be associated to increased the risk of Alzheime's disease (AD), epidemiologically and clinically. Polysaccharides, phytochemicals derived from wolfberry (LBA) not only inhibited Abeta accumulation but also reduced risk of other factors induced AD(1162). According to the University of Hong Kong, the chemical olysaccharides, also ameliorated glutamate excitotoxicity involved in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1163). The herbal alkaline extract was found to exhibit neuroprotection, through inhibiting Abeta-peptides induced apoptosis and neuronal cell death(1164).

1.2. In neuroprotective effects
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), on focal cerebral ischemic injury in mice model, inhibited neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway(1165). In ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage, chemical Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), reduced apoptosis and a decrease number of viable cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner nuclear layer (INL), through its  antioxidant activity(1166), In PC12 cell, Lycium barbarum extracts inhibited neurotoxin  induced Parkinson's disease-like syndrome, through increased intracellular Ca (2+) level and significantly cell viability and cellular ATP levels(1167).

1.3. In cognitive impairment
In prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, Lycium barbarum showed to inhibit brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction, through its scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals(1168). Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription, containing Lycium, showed to enhance neuroprotective effects in attenuation of memory impairment, probably through its anti-inflammatory activities(1169).

1.4. In learning and memory
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, scopolamine (SCO-induced cognitive and memory deficits in rats model, ameliorated and suppressed oxidative stress in hippocampus, and neurons apoptosis(1170). On transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, Gou qi extracts at 10 mg/kg improved the performance of  the learning and the memory retrieval phases of tested models, through reduced levels of Aβ(1-42) in hippocampal tissue(1171). According to Kyung Hee University, Lycium chinense fruit, in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neuronal and cognitive impairment rats model, improved learning and memory deficit in impaired learning and memory scores(1172).

2. Polygonum multiflorum (he shou wu)
He Shu Wu or Ye Jiao Teng or Shu Wu is also known as Fleece flower root or  Fo-ti.
a. The prepared herb is astringent with some sweetness, mildly warm
b. The raw herb is bitter, sweet and neutral
used in TCM to treatment of hyperlipemia(1173), neurasthenia(1174), split personality(1174), promoted hair grown(1175) and prevent hair loss(1176) due to aging, skin rash due to inflammation(1177), etc., as the herb tonifies and benefits  the essence and blood, expels toxins, moistens the intestines, etc. by enhancing the (The prepared herb) liver and kidney channels and (The raw herb) liver, heart and large intestine channels(1178).

Phytochemicals
1. Polygoacetophenoside
2. Chrysophanol
3. Emodin
4. Rhein
5. Emodin-6
6. Physcion
7. Chrysophanic acid
8. Anthrone
9. beta-sitosterol
10. 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystibene-2O-b-D-glucoside
11. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside
12. Querctin-3-O-arabinoside
13. Lecithin
14. Etc.

1. In  Alzheimer's disease
Polygonum multiflorum extract, showed to significantly improved AD patients with total effective rate of 93.33% in clinical trial, according to Third Xiangya Hospital(1179). In rat model, induced Alzheimer's disease by injecting Abeta 1-40, exhibited improvement of learning and memory ability, through expression of the fluidity of mitochondria membrane and the activity of mitochondrial COX(1180) and ameliorated hippocampal synapses count and synaptophysin expression(1181). In cognitive deficits induced by Abeta25-35, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb water extract, also significantly ameliorated the cognitive deficits, probably due to its antioxidant properties(1182).

2. In Parkinson disease
Strong evidences suggested that agricultural chemicals and environment toxins, such as dithiocarbamate fungicides such as manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate [maneb (MB)], impact dopamine systems has shown to associate to the development of Parkinson's disease,(1184)(1185)
In nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration induced by paraquat and maneb in mice model, ethanol-soluble PME (PME-I) water extracts from Polygonum multiflorum, showed to improve locomotor activity, motor incoordination, and declines of dopamine level, probably through phytochemicals, in the ethanol-soluble fraction of PME (PME-I)(1183).

3. In neuroprotective effects
In focal cerebral ischemia in mice, hexane extracts of Polygonum multiflorum, exhibited its neuroprotective effects though significantly decreased infarct size and improved neurological and motor function, (1186) and decreased glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner and prevention of apoptosis of cortical neurons(1187), in HT22 hippocampal cells(1188), probably through it antioxidant activity. According to Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, also improved mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative stress and inhibited apoptosis against induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells(1188).

4. In learning and memory
 Dietary supplementation with either ethanol or water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum has shown to reduce brain pathological changes and promote learning and memory ability(1191)(1192). In male Sprague-Dawley rats, injected with beta amyloid (Aβ), tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside, an active chemical constituent of extract from  Polygonum multiflorum, significantly improved the learning and memory, through by protecting synaptic structure and function(1189) and learning and/or memory ability of aged rats by increased Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1), a beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and  decrease ADAM10 (metallopeptidase domain 10), a protein associated to the development of Alzheimer's disease(1190).

For other Healthy Kid loved recipes http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/p/recipes.html
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Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia caused by Blood Stasis - Treatments  in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton.


References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(1142) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24288569 
(1143) http://www.classicalchinesemedicine.org/2010/03/blood-blood-stasis-and-blood-path-disorders/
(1144) http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2250018.Aging_Blood_Stasis 
(1145) http://www.tcvm.com/NewsArticles/TabId/245/ArtMID/1382/ArticleID/97/A-Look-at-Blood-Stasis.aspx 
(1147) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23893237
(1148) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23817098
(1149) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12561612
(1150) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972978
(1151) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25603493
(1152) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22483979
(1153) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22567031
(1154) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21169874
(1155) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25381995
(1156) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=wolfberry+aging
(1157) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25552899
(1158) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673056
(1159) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077258
(1160) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19373615
(1161) http://alternativehealing.org/qi_zi.htm
(1162) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20157238
(1163) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19499323
(1164) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17568570
(1165) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595452
(1166) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24400114
(1167) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24228605
(1168) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20131093
(1169) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22020275
(1170) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505383
(1171) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23737913
(1172) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110372
(1173) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17455469
(1174) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Polygonum+multiflorum+cognitive+degeneration
(1175) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612775
(1176) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22803359
(1177) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Polygonum+multiflorum+skin+rash
(1178) http://alternativehealing.org/he_shou_wu.htm
(1179) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20622335
(1180) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19060365
(1181) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17935895
(1182) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16219438
(1183) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Polygonum+multiflorum+Parkinson+disease
(1184) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11124998
(1185) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729209
(1186) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24534954
(1187) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23164763
(1188) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21497157
(1189) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23181273
(1190) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22032649
(1191) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12775116
(1192) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12856856