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Saturday, 14 February 2015

(4th edited )Most common diseases of Elders - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua) treatments of Dementia Caused by Spleen Qi Deficiency

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                     Diseases of Central Nervous system

                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)
C.3. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine with function in absorbing nutrients and transport them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in  maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).

3. Safflower (Hong Hua)
Safflower, is an acrid, warm herb in nature, used in tradition Chinese medicine as anti-bacterial(1070), anti viral(1068)(1069), analgesic(1071), diabetic(1072)(1073), immune stimulant(1074), anti-inflammatory(1071), anti-spasmodic(1075) agent. As  a blood tonic in Chinese medicine, the herb is effective in treating dysmenorrhea(1075), amenorrhea(1075), by breaking up blood stagnation|(1077)(11078), improve blood flow(15) through warm-pungent-liver efficiency network(1079) and regulation of female reproductive hormone(1080) via liver, heart channels(1076).

Phytochemicals
1. Neocarthamin
2. Carthamin
3. Carthamone
4. Carthamidin
5. Saffloryellow
6. Saffloryellow-A
7. Apalmitic acid
8. Myristic acid
9. Lauric acid
10. Etc.

Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua) used in the treatment of symptoms of degenerative diseases(1091) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent Hydroxy-safflor yellow A(1081)baicalin, baicalein, wogonin(1088), in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1082)(1083), through anti oxidative stress(1086), anti inflammatory(1084))(1085) activities, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1081) induced neurotoxicity causes of  Alzheimer's disease.(1087)(1089) and neurodegeneration(1090).

1. In Alzheimer's disease
Neuroinflammation has shown to be a major contribution to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1092). Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA), isolated from safflower, inhibited Aβ 1-43₁ induced inflammation(1096) through anti microglia-mediated neurotoxicity activity(1094). In PC12 cells induced by β-amyloid neurotoxicity, the phytochemical also inhibited cell viability, glutathione level, through ameliorated enzymes found extensively in body tissues, formation of DNA fragmentation, and levels of reactive oxygen species(1095) and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators(1097).


2. In Neuroprotective effects(1098)
In Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA) at the molecular level, the chemical showed to inhibite energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress caused by impaired metabolism in rats with ischemia, through suppressing proinflammatory and upregulating anti-inflammatory mechanism(1099). According to Tianjin Medical University General Hospita, the herb also exerted its neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a major protein component of senile plaques induced neurotoxicity via decreased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species(1101), ROS marker, malondialdehyde, and increased the level of glutathione, stabilized mitochondrial membrane(1100) and protected against excitotoxic neuronal death(1102).

3. In memory dysfunction
Intake of safflower oil has shown to improve learning and memory ability in n-3 fatty acid deficient male mice(1103) and in an age-related neuro deteriorative mouse model(1106), probably through modulated physiological properties of entorhinal cortex neurons(1104) and the balance of ratio of brain phospholipid(1107), respectively. Nicotiflorin, a natural flavonoid extracted from safflower, in cerebral multi-infarct dementia in rats model, showed to enhance spatial memory through reducd ROS production(1105).


Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton  

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References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(1068) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23061633
(1069) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23990301
(1070) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712651
(1071) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24333963
(1072) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22098918
(1073) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22180326
(1074) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315002
(1075) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24212075
(1077) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Red+Sage+Root+and+uterus
(1078) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16181539
(11079) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25276956
(1080) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960183
(1076) http://alternativehealing.org/carthamus_tinctorius.htm
(1081) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24412680
(1082) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17448528
(1083) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23420419
(1084) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24412680
(1085) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23333598
(1086) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684718
(1087) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16101743
(1088) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=safflower+Parkinson's+disease+PD
(1089) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25672970
(1090) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12360580
(1091) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070681
(1092) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25674199
(1093) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25404051
(1094) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24412680
(1095) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23420419
(1096) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23333598
(1097) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690200
(1098) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373810 
(1099) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3654365/
(1100) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042506
(1101) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867942
(1102) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20526740
(1103) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763040
(1104) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22551210
(1105) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Safflower+dementia+symptoms
(1106) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7712178
(1107) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10024623