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Friday, 6 February 2015

(4th edited )Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Xi Yang Shen (American Ginseng) treatments of Dementia Caused by Heart Qi Deficiency

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (810)
C.2. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to 
C.2.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart  Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842).

3. Xi yang shen(946), Yin in nature, the sweet, slightly bitter, cool herb has been used in TCM to treat fatigue(947)(948), diabetes(949), cardiovascular diseases(950)(951) and atopic diseases(952), promote saliva, quench thirst(949)(950), due to yang deficiency of lungs, by enhancing the lung and spleen qi, through increasing the digestive system in absorbing vital energy and reducing the heat causes of qi stagnation through Heart, Lung, Kidney channels.
Phytochemicals
1. Resin
2. Pinene
3. α Phellandrene
4. β Phellandrene
5. α-amyrone,
6. α-amyrinone
7. α-amyrin
8. β-amyrin
8. Viridiflorol
9. Insensole
10. Insensole oxide
11. Ginseng Saponins: ginsenoside -R0, -Rb1, -Rb2, -Rb3, -Rc, -Rd, -Re, -Rf, -Rg1, -Rg2, -Rg3, -Rh1, -RA0, quinquenoside R1, gypenoside X1, F3, F11.
12. Etc.

Herbal xi yang shen used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(953) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in ameliorated amyloid pathology(953) causes of neuro cells apoptosis(954) and related cognitive deficits(955).

3.1. In Alzheimer's disease
In Alzheimer's disease cell model, induced by Abeta25-35, water extracts of American Ginseng (WEAG), exerted a neuroprotective effects of  SH-SY5, a human derived cell line against cells apoptosi(954). Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), a main component found in American ginseng, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice model, induced by scopolamine, morphine and methamphetamine, significantly mitigated learning and memory impairment in 15 days, through inhibited the expressions of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ1-40 in the cortex and hippocampus, restored the activities of antioxidants in decreased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), a indicators of lipid peroxidation (953).

3.2.  In Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease
In neurodegeneration-like Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease rat model, induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). preparation of American ginseng leaves and stems significantly reduced brain degeneration through its active phytochemicals, ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb3 and Rd(958), according to Baylor College of Medicine and Austin State University(957). Ginseng saponins, an active ingredients also found in ginseng species, including American ginseng also exerted beneficial effects on aging, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and neurodegenerative disease through mediated protective mechanisms, including attenuated free radicals(959)(960).

3.3. In Neuroprotective effects
Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), a phytochemical of Panax quinquefolism (American ginseng) showed to exhibit its neuroprotective effect on methamphetamine (MA)-induced behavioral and neurochemical toxicities in mice(964) and in Parkinson's disease (PD) of rat model, improved locomotor(962) by evoked neuronal excitability was mediated by increased release of glutamate(962); motor balance, coordination, and apomorphine-induced rotation, through inhibiting free radical formation and stimulating endogenous antioxidant release(961). According to the State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology, water extracts of American Ginseng (WEAG) also exerted its neuroprotective effect on SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35, in Alzheimer's Disease cellular model(963).

3.4. In  Cognitive impairment 
Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation, elevated oxidative stress, and apoptosis of the neurons have shown to induce the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11) found abundantly in American ginseng, exhibited recognition improvement effect in mouse model, through its antioxidant status in inhibition ofamyloidogenesis and oxidative stress and enhancement of neuronal functions(965) as well as ameliorated cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations caused by accumulation of intercellular messenger, nitric oxide (NO)(966).


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Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton  

References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(946) http://alternativehealing.org/american_ginseng.htm 
(947) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19415341
(948) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21803872 
(949) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24891873 
(950) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21985167
(951) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998708
(952) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22038929
(953) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23541491
(954) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19180962
(955) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22213250
(956) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132508
(957) https://nwpf.org/stay-informed/news/2005/06/ginseng-compounds-may-fight-huntington%E2%80%99s-disease,-parkinson%E2%80%99s-disease/
(958) http://www.biospace.com/News/ginseng-substances-fight-brain-disease-in-rats/20252020
(959) Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington's disease
(960) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16518078
(961) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386001 
(962) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21864652 
(963) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19180962 
(964) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13679222 
(965) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23541491 
(966) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132508