Sunday, 23 November 2014

Women's Health - Premenstrual syndrome(PMS): The Causes(Revised edition with references)

By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

 Premenstrual syndrome is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, effected over 70% to 90% of women in the US and lesser for women in Southeast Asia because of difference in living style and social structure. The syndrome also interferes women's physical and emotional states, and daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation and occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.

The Causes
1. Unhealthy diet(1)
Unhealthy diet with over consumption of saturated fat, trans fat, artificial, caffeine, etc and under consumption of fiber, vital vitamins and minerals promoted over production of bad estrogen(2) and weakened liver function in carbohydrate synthesis and fat and protein metabolism(3) to cause PMS.

2. digestive disorder 
Strong digestive system is important to provide vital nutrients for our body in regulating its normal function(7). Unfortunately, it is unknown that women with PMS are found to have digestive disorder(8) before menstruation

3. Vitamins and Minerals deficiency(4)
Vitamins and minerals are important for regulating the hormone production in our body, especially for women during menstrual cycle. Deficiency of vitamins and minerals causes nervous disorder(5), liver malfunction(6) and hormone imbalance(7) resulting in PMS(7).

4. Sluggish liver
For what ever reason, women with PMS are found to have a sluggish liver(9)(10) before menstruation. Since liver is vital in regulating the levels of estrogen through production of cholesterol and fat and protein metabolism(3), sluggish liver causes nervous tension(3) and hormone imbalance(6).

5. Hormonal imbalance
Over production or under production of certain hormones before menstruation as resulting of thyroid malfunction(13), pituitary gland abnormality function(12), liver inability in metabolism(6), abnormal function of adrenal gland(11) etc. cause hormonal imbalance resulting in PMS.
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(1) A clinician's guide to the premenstrual syndrome. Barnhart KT1, Freeman EW, Sondheimer SJ.(PubMed)
(2) Hormone_imbalance(Wikipedia)
(3) Shifts in dietary carbohydrate-lipid exposure regulate expression of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-associated gene PNPLA3/adiponutrin in mouse liver and HepG2 human liver cells. Hao L1, Ito K1, Huang KH1, Sae-tan S2, Lambert JD2, Ross AC3.(PubMed)
(4) Premenstrual dysphoric disorder. A guide for the treating clinician. Elliott H.(PubMed)
(5) Nutritional therapies for mental disorders. Lakhan SE1, Vieira KF.(PubMed)
(6) Nutritional assessment in chronic liver disease(Uptodate)
(7) Premenstrual dysphoric disorder. A guide for the treating clinician. Elliott H.(PubMed)
(8) The menstrual cycle affects rectal sensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome but not healthy volunteers. Houghton LA1, Lea R, Jackson N, Whorwell PJ.(PubMed)
(9) [Study on preparation method of Yueanjian for treatmen of premenstrual syndrome]. [Article in Chinese] Li X1, Gan Y, Zhang H, Qiao M, Hou Z, Guan Z, Liang M.(PubMed)
(10) [Effects of jingqianshu granule on expression of 5-HT(1A)R of PMS model rats with liver-qi stagnation]. [Article in Chinese] Su Y1, Xue L.(PubMed)
(11) Adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in patients with premenstrual syndrome. Lombardi I, Luisi S, Quirici B, Monteleone P, Bernardi F, Liut M, Casarosa E, Palumbo M, Petraglia F, Genazzani AR.(PubMed)
(12) [Effects of jingqianshu granule on expression of 5-HT(1A)R of PMS model rats with liver-qi stagnation]. [Article in Chinese] Su Y1, Xue L.(PubMed)
(13) Thyroid axis function during the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual syndrome. Girdler SS1, Pedersen CA, Light KC.(PubMed)