Friday, 24 October 2014

Endometriosis: The Effects of Wild Yam (revised edition with references)

By Kyle J. Norton  Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood, instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.
Wild yam is a species of a twining tuberous vine that is found growing wild in North America.
It has been used in herbal medicine in treating menstrual cramps and to increase liver function.

The effects
1. Hormone balancing(5)
Wild yam helps to increase liver function in protein and fat metabolism, which helps to stimulate the production of weak estrogen(1)(5) and enhanced production progesterone(5) through bile secretion, leading to lower levels of bad estrogen(9) resulting in lowering the risk of cell abnormality such as endometrial implants and adhesion, and cancer(4).

 2. Nervous system
By increasing the levels of good cholesterol in the blood stream, wild yam helps to inhibit the bad cholesterol, thereby increasing the transportation of oxygen and nutrients to the cell in the nervous system(6) which decreases the symptoms of endometriosis similar to those in menopause(7)(8).
3. Immune system(3)
 wild yam enhances immune fighting against the invasion of bacteria, virus and irregular cells growth (2), including breast cancer caused by Estrogen receptor negative; ER(4)

 4. Menstrual cramps
Since it helps to balance the levels of estrogen and progesterone(5), it reduces the risk of menstrual cramps(1) caused by hormonal imbalance of above hormones.

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(1) Characterization of in vitro ADME properties of diosgenin and dioscin from Dioscorea Manda VK1, Avula B, Ali Z, Wong YH, Smillie TJ, Khan IA, Khan SI(PubMed)
(2) Cholestane steroid glycosides from the rhizomes of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam) by Ali Z1, Smillie TJ, Khan IA.(PubMed)
(3) Cholestane and spirostane glycosides from the rhizomes of Dioscorea septemloba by Liu XT1, Wang ZZ, Xiao W, Zhao HW, Hu J, Yu B.(PubMed)
(4) Evaluation of wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract as a potential epigenetic agent in breast cancer cells by Aumsuwan P1, Khan SI, Khan IA, Avula B, Walker LA, Helferich WG, Katzenellenbogen BS, Dasmahapatra AK.(PubMed)
(5) Estrogen activities and the cellular effects of natural progesterone from wild yam extract in mcf-7 human breast cancer cells byPark MK1, Kwon HY, Ahn WS, Bae S, Rhyu MR, Lee Y.(PubMed)
(6) Cholesterol: its regulation and role in central nervous system disorders by Orth M1, Bellosta S.(PubMed)
(7) Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms by Shou C1, Li J, Liu Z.(PubMed)
(8) Phytoestrogens: a viable option? by Russell L1, Hicks GS, Low AK, Shepherd JM, Brown CA.(PubMed)
(9) Effects of natural products and nutraceuticals on steroid hormone-regulated gene expression by Rosenberg Zand RS1, Jenkins DJ, Diamandis EP.(PubMed)