Friday, 24 October 2014

Endometriosis: The Effects of Black haw (revised edition with references)

By Kyle J. Norton  Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood, instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.

Black haw is also known as black haw viburnum, or stag bush. It is a native to southeastern North America. The herb has been used in treating menstrual cramp and morning sickness for women with or without endometriosis.

The effects
 1. Nervous system(2)
It is said that scopoletin(1) in the black haw helps in strengthening the nervous system by regulating the serotonin hormone, thereby it reduces the tension of nervous system and symptoms of endometriosis such as anxiety(3).

 2. Immune system(4)
Black haw contains scopoletin, The substance is said to help immune system in fighting against bacteria, virus invasion, and forming of free redials including endometrial implants and adhesion(5).

3. Calming uterus contraction(6)
Black is said to have uterine sedative tonic containing salicin, the aspirin-like substance. It helps to relax the contraction of uterus during and after menstruation leading to reduce tension in the uterus and abdominal pain(7).

4. Uterus muscles(6)
Deficiency of bile caused by bile duct blockage increases the risk of imbalance of prostaglandins hormones(10) during menstrual cycle that leads to overactive uterine muscles resulting in menstrual pain(9) in the abdominal region(7). Black haw is said to help remove the blockage, thereby increasing the liver function(8) in balancing the prostaglandin hormones.

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(1) The coumarin scopoletin potentiates acetylcholine release from synaptosomes, amplifies hippocampal long-term potentiation and ameliorates anticholinergic- and age-impaired memory by Hornick A1, Lieb A, Vo NP, Rollinger JM, Stuppner H, Prast H.(PubMed)
(2) tective effect of fruits of Morinda citrifolia L. on scopolamine induced memory impairment in mice: a behavioral, biochemical and cerebral blood flow study by Pachauri SD1, Tota S, Khandelwal K, Verma PR, Nath C, Hanif K, Shukla R, Saxena JK, Dwivedi AK.(PubMed)
(3) Coumarin compounds of Biebersteinia multifida roots show potential anxiolytic effects in mice by Monsef-Esfahani HR, Amini M, Goodarzi N, Saiedmohammadi F, Hajiaghaee R, Faramarzi MA, Tofighi Z, Ghahremani MH.(PubMed)
(4) Docking studies of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Damnacanthal and Scopoletin with human lens gamma D-crystalline by Rentala S1, Konada S, Chintala R, Mangamoori LN, Upadhyayula SM, Dhurjeti SM
(5) Scopoletin and scopolin isolated from Artemisia iwayomogi suppress differentiation of osteoclastic macrophage RAW 264.7 cells by scavenging reactive oxygen species by Lee SH1, Ding Y, Yan XT, Kim YH, Jang HD.(PubMed)
(6) Down-regulation of expression of α- smooth muscle actin in airway smooth muscle cells by allicin and its mechanisms].[Article in Chinese] by Wei XY. (PubMed)
(7) Garlic and its active metabolite allicin produce endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent relaxation in rat pulmonary arteries by Ku DD1, Abdel-Razek TT, Dai J, Kim-Park S, Fallon MB, Abrams GA.(PubMed)
(8) CD36 deletion reduces VLDL secretion, modulates liver prostaglandins, and exacerbates hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice by Nassir F1, Adewole OL, Brunt EM, Abumrad NA.(PubMed)
(9) A first-in-human study of PDC31 (prostaglandin F2α receptor inhibitor) in primary dysmenorrhea by Böttcher B1, Laterza RM2, Wildt L1, Seufert RJ2, Buhling KJ3, Singer CF4, Hill W5, Griffin P5, Jilma B6, Schulz M7, Smith RP8.(PubMed)
(10) Role of gallbladder mucin in pathophysiology of gallstones byLaMont JT, Smith BF, Moore JR.(PubMed)

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