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Who doesn't want to have 5, 10,15 or 20 years younger skins in comparison to people with the same age group.
The dream of finding the ingredients in maintaining and getting rid of aging skin has been ongoing since human civilization. Unfortunately, many ingredients with no commercial values have been discarded due to their effects in dampening the profits of all cosmetic companies.
In the 12 weeks of the study of 120 healthy subjects, the combinations of DHA and vitamin A, and E showed to rejuvenated forearms skin up to 90% if compared to the base line.
Mom and Pop, including people who like to dress with their arms exposed may delight to find out that scientists have discovered ingredients which have the potential in reduced visibility of the arteries in the back of the hand and getting rid of chapping skin, wrinkly, crinkly crepe-like skin texture due to the result of little fat on the backs of the hands when even a small amount of collagen or elastin fibers begins to break down, of the forearms and the aging forehead and nosy find lines.
Chapping of skin may be only simply the formation of fissures or cracks in the skin due to a combination of particularly dry and scaly skin and exposure to cold or wind but the loss of collagen due to progression of aging on the elder, may intensify over all appearance of the back of hand. moister cream may be helpful and can not delay the aging process.
Fine line is a result of effect of gravity in aging, and causes of slower process in cell rejuvenation and longer in elastic fibers replacement. Some researchers insisted that adding to the aging skin, free radicals and inflammatory molecules may degrade facial skin even quicker.
Vitamin A is a general term of Vitamin A Retinol, retinal, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin best known for its functions for vision health and antioxidant scavenger and essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues.
Activation of both all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid in nuclear retinoic acid receptors reduction of skin aging(1)and significantly increased type I procollagen and reduced collagenase (matrix metalloproteinases-1, MMP-1)and suppressed recombinant human CCN1(3).
P-Dodecylaminophenol derived from the synthetic retinoid, in the skin of hairless mice study, exhibited the increased cytokeratin 16 expression which is essential in skin healing and maintenance, without causing the desquamation and erythema(4). Topical application of a ROL-containing product not only improved all major aging signs including wrinkles under the eyes, fine lines and tone evenness, but also promoted keratinocyte proliferation, induced epidermal thickening and alleviated skin aging signs, without any significant adverse reaction(5). Some researchers suggested that topical retinol improves fine wrinkles associated with natural aging, through its effects in induction of glycosaminoglycan, increased collagen production are most likely responsible for wrinkle effacement. Retinol-treated aged skin is more likely to withstand skin injury and ulcer formation along with improved appearance(7), including improving lines and wrinkles, pigmentation, elasticity, firmness and overall photodamage(8), disappearance of the wrinkles caused by UVB irradiation probably via RAR transactivation activity, but the synthetic agonist showed no adverse effect in causing skin irritation(9).
2. Carotenoids(beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin) and Retinal
Carotenoids, plant pigments, converted to vitamin A after intake, though to play an important role in prevention and treatment of some diseases through it antioxidant effects.
Nutrition rich in carotenoids is best known to prevent cell damage, premature skin aging, and skin cancer(10) and widely used in the skin care industry either as topically applied agents or oral supplements in an attempt to prolong youthful skin appearance(11)(12). Administration of carotenoids may interact with free radicals to enhance the protection system against that destructive(13).
The testing of high doses of sun-emitted UV-radiation induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), Carotenoid-tablets combined with placebo-cream in induced less carotenoid accumulation than carotenoid-tablets alone(15). In fact, deficiency of vitamin A may result of induced premature aging. In skin of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats, showed over expression of matrix metalloproteinase -2 (MMP-2) and hyaluronidase (HAase) but not on vitamin A treated mice, through promoting the production of collagen in dermis and inducing cell growth and inhibition of epidermal differentiation in skin tissues(17).
Dehydroascorbic Acid (DHA) (vitamin C supplement oxidized form)
Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin found in fresh fruits, berries and green vegetables. It is best known for its free radical scavenging activity and regenerating oxidized vitamin E for immune system support. In skin aging, the vitamin may improve solar radiation protection and epidermal aging (1) through production of collagen due to its antioxidant activity (2)(3).
Epidemiological studies linking vitamin C in prevention of skin damage and aging have produced some certain results (3a)(3b)(3c). Vitamin C oxidized form or dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) processed antiviral and virucidal effects (23), prevented H2O2-induced cell death by increasing the GSH levels mediated by the GPx and GR activities and PPP (17), and regulated neuronal energy metabolism, through facilitating the utilization of glucose via the PPP for antioxidant purposes (18) by increasing antioxidant potential in the central nervous system (19). Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) may be a potential anti-cancer agent to treat aggressive cancers (20)(21). Dr. Toohey at the Cytoregulation Research said "rapidly-dividing tumour cells make unusually large amounts of homocysteine thiolactone and that administered dehydroascorbic acid enters the cells and converts the thiolactone to mercaptopropionaldehyde which kills the cancer cells" (22).
According to the Minghsin University of Science and Technology, in doses of a dependent manner, the concentration of L-ascorbic acid induced absorption of the collagen solution in exhibition of smoothing wrinkles and clear up spots(8). Ascorbic acid (AA) is essential in stimulating collagen gene expression. In type 1 and type 4 collagen and SVCT2, the vitamin was found to enhance the expression of type 1 and type 4 collagens and SVCT2 mRNA in cultured human skin fibroblasts at 100 μM AA placed every 24h for 5 days to prevent depletion(9). The Chiang Mai University study also supported the effects of ascorbic acid in the anti-aging process through exhibition pro and active MMP-2 inhibitory(10). Combined vitamins, including vitamin C in a single formulation had a slightly lower degradation rate and more stable formulations as compared to different preparations containing only one of the vitamins(11)(12). Application of vitamin C showed a significant reduction of oxidative stress in the skin, an improvement of the epidermal-dermal microstructure and a reduction of fine lines and wrinkles in aged skin within a relatively short period of time of product application(13). The Bruce and Associates study also insisted the effectiveness of vitamin C application over a 12 week period as the vitamin enhanced the overall intensity of pigmentation, fine lines and wrinkles, tactile roughness, and laxity with a 100% satisfaction of overall appearance of the tested subjects’ skin(14).
In fact, many studies have showed that vitamin C, the un oxidized form improved skin roughness and scaliness(26)(27), wrinkles(28)(29), skin elasticity and firming(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35), lightened Liver and aging spots(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41), Pigmentation(42)(43)(44), reduced Acne and Acne scars(45)(46).
Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin consisting of eight different variants (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrieno with varying levels of biological activity, found abundantly in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, wheat germ oil, sunflower, safflower oils, etc.) which plays an important role in neurological functions and inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of enzymatic activity, free radical scavenger, etc.
Epidemiological studies linking vitamin E in reduced progression of aging have been inconclusive (47)(48)(49)(50), but some studies showed that vitamin delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins (51) and prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts (52), protects against oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing by modulating the telomere length possibly via telomerase(54), protects against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress (55). and induced DNA damage and telomere shortening of normal human skin fibroblast cells derived from young and old individual donors(56), UVA(57). In a study of Indian women with signs of facial aging, the composition of niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate significantly reduced the appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, and lightened the appearance of the skin in comparison to the control through 6 weeks(60).
Conducting a study is a very complicated business. Once ingredients were found, our researchers had to go through a lengthy searching for related studies, which had been published on PubMed data bases. Hundreds if not thousands of previous studies had been read with only hundreds selected to be used as references to out study, as you can see below.
The next step was to recruit some of our permanent-tested subjects. Only a few were chosen to ensure the efficacy of the ingredients or combination of ingredients (Save money). Only ingredients with efficacy up to our standard will be retested with large example size. In this case, 12 healthy subjects were tested for 4 weeks as follow
Group 1 (2 subject, 1 mild, 1 severe) to test for efficacy of Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA)
Group 2 (2 subject, 1 mild, 1 severe) to test for efficacy of Vitamin A
Group 3 (2 subject, 1 mild, 1 severe) to test for efficacy of Vitamin E
Group 4 (2 subject, 1 mild, 1 severe) to test for efficacy of Combination of Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and vitamin A
Group 5 (2 subject, 1 mild, 1 severe) to test for efficacy of combination Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and vitamin E
Group 6 (2 subject, 1 mild, 1 severe) to test for efficacy of Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and vitamin A and E.
Only group 4 - 6 had showed some good progresses, according to our standard. The combination of ingredients therefore were used for 12 weeks study with a sample of 120 healthy subjects. The recruiting of subjects between ages of 57 - 62 had been difficult due to 60% of general population are either over weight or obese.
Kyle J. Norton, the leader of the research team said " Anti aging products can not bring back the youthful skin at age of 20 or 30, its can only rejuvenate your skin to induced 5, 10, 15 or 20 years younger than people with the same age group who do not use any anti aging products"
The study had produced some astonished results as the combination of DHA, Vitamin A and E had showed to rejuvenate the forearms of tested subject as follow
1. Palm: 95%
2. Finger: 80%
3, Knuckles: 75%
4. Wrist: 75%
5. Back of the hand: 75%
6 From elbow to wrist: 85%
7. Reduced visibility of arterial vein: 70%
8. Improved 90% of firming, smoothness, elasticity
We believe, this is the first time that the combination has been showed effectively in rejuvenation of forearms of aging subject between ages of 57 - 62.
The study also showed you
1. How to apply the combination of DHA, vitamin A and E for optimal result,
2. Why and how only the combination works but not individual ingredient,
3. How you can make DHA and types of vitamin A and E which you can purchase.
4. The Quantity and quality of amount usage.
5. What you can expect in 4, 8 and 12 weeks.
Logically, It can be assumed that application of ingredients should produce more superior in the younger and lesser results in older age group in comparison to the tested subject age between 57 - 62.
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(1) 40 years of topical tretinoin use in review by Baldwin HE1, Nighland M, Kendall C, Mays DA, Grossman R, Newburger J.(PubMed)
(2) Elevated cysteine-rich 61 mediates aberrant collagen homeostasis in chronologically aged and photoaged human skin by Quan T1, He T, Shao Y, Lin L, Kang S, Voorhees JJ, Fisher GJ.(PubMed)
(3) Retinoids suppress cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), a negative regulator of collagen homeostasis, in skin equivalent cultures and aged human skin in vivo by Quan T1, Qin Z, Shao Y, Xu Y, Voorhees JJ, Fisher GJ(PubMed)
(4) Effects of the aminophenol analogue p-Dodecylaminophenol on mouse skin by Takahashi N1, Fujiu Y(PubMed)
(5) Antiaging action of retinol: from molecular to clinical by Bellemère G1, Stamatas GN, Bruère V, Bertin C, Issachar N, Oddos T.(PubMed)
(6) Synthesis and in vitro biological activity of retinyl retinoate, a novel hybrid retinoid derivative by Kim H1, Kim B, Kim H, Um S, Lee J, Ryoo H, Jung H(PubMed)
(7) Improvement of naturally aged skin with vitamin A (retinol) by Kafi R1, Kwak HS, Schumacher WE, Cho S, Hanft VN, Hamilton TA, King AL, Neal JD, Varani J, Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ, Kang S.(PubMed)
(8) A stabilized 0.1% retinol facial moisturizer improves the appearance of photodamaged skin in an eight-week, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study by Tucker-Samaras S1, Zedayko T, Cole C, Miller D, Wallo W, Leyden JJ.(PubMed)
(9) N-retinoyl-D-glucosamine, a new retinoic acid agonist, mediates topical retinoid efficacy with no irritation on photoaged skin by Kambayashi H1, Odake Y, Takada K, Funasaka Y, Ichihashi M, Kato S(PubMed)
(10) Influence of dietary carotenoids on radical scavenging capacity of the skin and skin lipids by Meinke MC1, Friedrich A, Tscherch K, Haag SF, Darvin ME, Vollert H, Groth N, Lademann J, Rohn S.(PubMed)
(11) Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging by Schagen SK1, Zampeli VA, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC.(PubMed)
(12) The role of nutraceuticals in anti-aging medicine by Vranesić-Bender D.(PubMed)
(13) Interaction between carotenoids and free radicals in human skin by Lademann J1, Schanzer S, Meinke M, Sterry W, Darvin ME(PubMed)
(14) Carotenoids in human skin by Lademann J1, Meinke MC, Sterry W, Darvin ME(PubMed)
(15) Dermal carotenoid level and kinetics after topical and systemic administration of antioxidants: enrichment strategies in a controlled in vivo study by Darvin ME1, Fluhr JW, Schanzer S, Richter H, Patzelt A, Meinke MC, Zastrow L, Golz K, Doucet O, Sterry W, Lademann J(PubMed)
(16) Retinaldehyde/hyaluronic acid fragments: a synergistic association for the management of skin aging by Cordero A1, Leon-Dorantes G, Pons-Guiraud A, Di Pietro A, Asensi SV, Walkiewicz-Cyraska B, Litvik R, Turlier V, Mery S, Merial-Kieny C(PubMed)
(17) A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues by Takahashi N1, Takasu S.(PubMed)
(1) Active ingredients against human epidermal aging by Lorencini M1, Brohem CA2, Dieamant GC2, Zanchin NI3, Maibach HI(PubMed)
(2) CAM use in dermatology. Is there a potential role for honey, green tea, and vitamin C? by Barbosa NS1, Kalaaji AN2.(PubMed)
(3) The science behind vitamins by Linder J.(PubMed)
(3a) Split-face study of topical 23.8% L-ascorbic acid serum in treating photo-aged skin by Xu TH1, Chen JZ, Li YH, Wu Y, Luo YJ, Gao XH, Chen HD(PubMed)
(3b) Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography by Traikovich SS.(PubMed)
(3c) Formulation and in-vivo evaluation of a cosmetic multiple emulsion containing vitamin C and wheat protein by Akhtar N1, Yazan Y(PubMed)
(4) Ascorbic acid levels in various tissues, plasma and urine of mice during aging by Iwama M1, Amano A, Shimokado K, Maruyama N, Ishigami A.(PubMed)
(5) Ascorbic Acid Modulation of Iron Homeostasis and Lysosomal Function in Trabecular Meshwork Cells by Xu P1, Lin Y, Porter K, Liton PB(PubMed)
(6) High plasma levels of vitamin C and E are associated with incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis by Chaganti RK1, Tolstykh I2, Javaid MK3, Neogi T4, Torner J5, Curtis J6, Jacques P7, Felson D4, Lane NE8, Nevitt MC9; Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study Group (MOST)(PubMed)
(7) Trade-offs between anti-aging dietary supplementation and exercise by Mendelsohn AR1, Larrick JW(PubMed)
(8) [The study of absorption efficiency and restoring effects of collagen and ascorbic acid on aged skin by fluorescence and reflection spectroscopy].[Article in Chinese] by Yang BW1, Lin YM, Wang SY, Yeh DC.(PubMed)
(9) Ascorbic acid enhances the expression of type 1 and type 4 collagen and SVCT2 in cultured human skin fibroblasts by Kishimoto Y1, Saito N, Kurita K, Shimokado K, Maruyama N, Ishigami A.(PubMed)
(10) Nanoscale gelatinase A (MMP-2) inhibition on human skin fibroblasts of Longkong (Lansium domesticum Correa) leaf extracts for anti-aging by Manosroi A1, Kumguan K, Chankhampan C, Manosroi W, Manosroi J.(PubMed)
(11) Benefits of combinations of vitamin A, C and E derivatives in the stability of cosmetic formulations by Gianeti MD1, Gaspar LR, Camargo FB Jr, Campos PM.(PubMed)
(12) Stability of vitamin C derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, vitamins A and E. by Segall AI1, Moyano MA.(PubMed)
(13) Topical activity of ascorbic acid: from in vitro optimization to in vivo efficacy by Raschke T1, Koop U, Düsing HJ, Filbry A, Sauermann K, Jaspers S, Wenck H, Wittern KP.(PubMed)
(14) Evaluation of a prescription strength 4% hydroquinone/10% L-ascorbic acid treatment system for normal to oily skin by Bruce S1, Watson J(PubMed)
(15) Fatal vitamin C-associated acute renal failure by McHugh GJ, Graber ML, Freebairn RC.(PubMed)
(16) Ascorbic acid overdosing: a risk factor for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis by Urivetzky M, Kessaris D, Smith AD.(PubMed)
(17) Dehydroascorbic acid prevents oxidative cell death through a glutathione pathway in primary astrocytes by Kim EJ1, Park YG, Baik EJ, Jung SJ, Won R, Nahm TS, Lee BH.(PubMed)
(18) The oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid, regulates neuronal energy metabolism by Cisternas P1, Silva-Alvarez C, Martínez F, Fernandez E, Ferrada L, Oyarce K, Salazar K, Bolaños JP, Nualart F.(PubMed)
(19) Vitamin C crosses the blood-brain barrier in the oxidized form through the glucose transporters by Agus DB1, Gambhir SS, Pardridge WM, Spielholz C, Baselga J, Vera JC, Golde DW.(PubMed)
(20) Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy by McCarty MF.(PubMed)
(21) Gelatin crosslinked with dehydroascorbic acid as a novel scaffold for tissue regeneration with simultaneous antitumor activity by Falconi M1, Salvatore V, Teti G, Focaroli S, Durante S, Nicolini B, Mazzotti A, Orienti I.(PubMed)
(22) Dehydroascorbic acid as an anti-cancer agent by Toohey JI.(PubMed)
(23) Antiviral and virucidal activities of natural products by Arakawa T1, Yamasaki H, Ikeda K, Ejima D, Naito T, Koyama AH.(PubMed)
(24) Topical L-ascorbic acid: percutaneous absorption studies, by Pinnell SR1, Yang H, Omar M, Monteiro-Riviere N, DeBuys HV, Walker LC, Wang Y, Levine M.(PubMed)
(25) Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography by Traikovich SS.(PubMed)
(26) Frictional properties of human skin: relation to age, sex and anatomical region, stratum corneum hydration and transepidermal water loss by Cua AB1, Wilhelm KP, Maibach HI.(PubMed)
(27) Skin surface lipid and skin friction: relation to age, sex and anatomical region by Cua AB1, Wilhelm KP, Maibach HI.(PubMed)
(28) Skin aging. Effect on transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin surface pH, and casual sebum content by Wilhelm KP1, Cua AB, Maibach HI.(PubMed)
(29) Wrinkle reduction in post-menopausal women consuming a novel oral supplement: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study by Jenkins G1, Wainwright LJ, Holland R, Barrett KE, Casey J.(PubMed)
(30) Effect of a novel dietary supplement on skin aging in post-menopausal women by Skovgaard GR1, Jensen AS, Sigler ML.(PubMed)
(31) Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective, by Moores J.(PubMed)
(32) Nutrition 411: revisiting vitamin C and wound healing by Collins N.(PubMed)
(33) Ef[The study of absorption efficiency and restoring effects of collagen and ascorbic acid on aged skin by fluorescence and reflection spectroscopy].[Article in Chinese] by Yang BW1, Lin YM, Wang SY, Yeh DC.(PubMed)
(34) Regulation of collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels by ascorbic acid, growth factors, and inhibitors of lipid peroxidation by Gessin JC1, Brown LJ, Gordon JS, Berg RA(PubMed)
(35) Electroporation-mediated topical delivery of vitamin C for cosmetic applications by Zhang L1, Lerner S, Rustrum WV, Hofmann GA.(PubMed)
(36) Liver Spot Removal: Vitamin C Products(Skin care guide)
(37) Lack of vitamin leads to brown spot on hand(livestrong)
(38) A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human skin against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation by Murray JC1, Burch JA, Streilein RD, Iannacchione MA, Hall RP, Pinnell SR.(PubMed)
(39) UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E by Lin JY1, Selim MA, Shea CR, Grichnik JM, Omar MM, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Pinnell SR.(PubMed)
(40) Protective effects of topical antioxidants in humans by Dreher F1, Maibach H.(PubMed)
(41) Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants by Darr D1, Dunston S, Faust H, Pinnell S.(PubMed)
(42) Successful short-term and long-term treatment of melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation using vitamin C with a full-face iontophoresis mask and a mandelic/malic acid skin care regimen by Taylor MB1, Yanaki JS, Draper DO, Shurtz JC, Coglianese M.(PubMed)
(43) Intravenous vitamin C in the treatment of post-laser hyperpigmentation for melasma: a short report by Lee GS.(PubMed)
(44) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin C iontophoresis in melisma by Huh CH1, Seo KI, Park JY, Lim JG, Eun HC, Park KC.(PubMed)
(45) USE OF VITAMIN C IN ACNE VULGARIS by GEORGE E. MORRIS, M.D.(Jama dermatology)
(46) Vitamin C and Acne Scar By Melodie Anne Coffman(Livestrong
(47) Evaluation of the photoprotective effect of oral vitamin E supplementation by Werninghaus K1, Meydani M, Bhawan J, Margolis R, Blumberg JB, Gilchrest BA.(PubMed)
(48) Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) by Eberlein-König B1, Placzek M, Przybilla B(PubMed)
(49) Effects of oral vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation on ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in human skin by McArdle F1, Rhodes LE, Parslew RA, Close GL, Jack CI, Friedmann PS, Jackson MJ(PubMed)
(50) Effect of UV exposure and beta-carotene supplementation on delayed-type hypersensitivity response in healthy older men by Herraiz LA1, Hsieh WC, Parker RS, Swanson JE, Bendich A, Roe DA.(PubMed)
(51) Inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and suppression of caspases by gamma-tocotrienol prevent apoptosis and delay aging in stress-induced premature senescence of skin fibroblasts by Makpol S1, Abdul Rahim N, Hui CK, Ngah WZ(PubMed)
(52) Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts by Makpol S1, Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Yusof YA, Ngah WZ.(PubMed)
(53) Gamma-tocotrienol modulated gene expression in senescent human diploid fibroblasts as revealed by microarray analysis by Makpol S1, Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Ngah WZ.(PubMed)
(54) Gamma-Tocotrienol prevents oxidative stress-induced telomere shortening in human fibroblasts derived from different aged individuals by Makpol S1, Abidin AZ, Sairin K, Mazlan M, Top GM, Ngah WZ.(PubMed)
(55) Modulation of collagen synthesis and its gene expression in human skin fibroblasts by tocotrienol-rich fraction by Makpol S1, Azura Jam F, Anum Mohd Yusof Y, Zurinah Wan Ngah W.(PubMed)
(56) Alpha-tocopherol modulates hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and telomere shortening of human skin fibroblasts derived from differently aged individuals by Makpol S1, Zainuddin A, Rahim NA, Yusof YA, Ngah WZ.(PubMed)
(60) The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial by Jerajani HR1, Mizoguchi H, Li J, Whittenbarger DJ, Marmor MJ.(PubMed)