Monday, 18 August 2014

Obesity Complication of Depression

By Kyle J.Norton

Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

How to calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

Depression is a normal response as part of our daily lives such as the loss of s job, the death of a love one, and illness. Over 30 million Americans suffer from depression and the amount is increasing in an alarming rate. Depression may be a mental health disorder that can affect the way you eat, sleep, and the way you feel about yourself. The mild case of depression can be defeated by a variety of self-care techniques. Others require the treatment of medication, such as antidepressant medications and psychotherapy that help to reduce and sometimes eliminate the symptoms of depression.

How Obesity associates with depression
1. According to the study of "Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies" by Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW, Zitman FG. (Source from Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, the Netherlands., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that This meta-analysis confirms a reciprocal link between depression and obesity. Obesity was found to increase the risk of depression, most pronounced among Americans and for clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, depression was found to be predictive of developing obesity.

2. In a study of "
Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children" by Davis M, Young L, Davis SP, Moll G. (Source from Department of Psychology, Jackson State University in Jackson, MS 39217-0350, USA., posted in PubMed, Researchers found that several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura 's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity

3. In n abstract of the study of "
Association between obesity and depression: Evidence from a longitudinal sample of the elderly in Taiwan" from Chang HH, Yen ST. (Source from a Department of Agricultural Economics , National Taiwan University , Taipei , Taiwan), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that : In contrast to most findings for the Western countries, a negative association between obesity and depression of the elderly is evident in Taiwan. The different findings between Western and Asian countries may be due to the cultural differences. Unlike the Western countries that stigmata are attached to excessive overweight, being overweight is not a symbol of unhealthiness because only the wealthy can afford to eat more and put on more weight in the Chinese society

4. According tithe study of "Association between Body Mass Index and depression: the "fat and jolly" hypothesis for adolescents girls" by Revah-Levy A, Speranza M, Barry C, Hassler C, Gasquet I, Moro MR, Falissard B, posted in PubMed, researchers found that there is evidence for a gender difference in the association between BMI and depression in adolescents, supporting the need to study boys and girls separately. Overweight adolescent girls are more likely to be depressed than obese adolescent girls, giving support for "fat and jolly" hypothesis not only among older women but also among adolescent girls.

5. In a study of "Obesity and onset of significant depressive symptoms: results from a prospective community-based cohort study of older men and women" byVogelzangs N, Kritchevsky SB, Beekman AT, Brenes GA, Newman AB, Satterfield S, Yaffe K, Harris TB, Penninx BW; Health ABC Study., (Source from Department of Psychiatry and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, AJ Ernststraat 887, 1081 HL Amsterdam, Netherlands. posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that This study shows that obesity, in particular visceral fat, increases the risk of onset of significant depressive symptoms in men. These results suggest that specific mechanisms might relate visceral fat to the onset of depression.

6. etc.

E. Treatments of Obesity and Depression
1. According to the abstract of the study of "Treatment of Comorbid Obesity and Major Depressive Disorder: A Prospective Pilot Study for their Combined Treatment" by Faulconbridge LF, Wadden TA, Berkowitz RI, Pulcini ME, Treadwell T. (Source from Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Obese individuals suffering from major depressive disorder can lose weight and achieve improvements in symptoms of depression and CVD risk factors with 16 weeks of combined treatment. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the efficacy of this treatment.

2. In a study of "Depression and suicidality in obese patients" by Lester D, Iliceto P, Pompili M, Girardi P. (Source from The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that A study of 70 obese patients indicated the presence of severe depression in 32% of the sample and some suicidal risk in 23%. Given this high prevalence, health professionals should always explore the presence of depression and suicidality in obese patients.

3.. In a study of " The Role of Adipokines in Understanding the Associations between Obesity and Depression" by Taylor VH, Macqueen GM. (Source from Mood Disorders Program, Centre for Mountain Health Services, McMaster University, D150-A, 100 West 5th Street, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3K7), posted in PubMed, researchers found that This paper is one of the first to examine the association between adipokines and depression. It provides an overview of the physiological role of adipokines and summarizes the data suggesting that they may be dysregulated in major depression. This area of research may become increasingly important as new treatment strategies are developed.

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