Tuesday, 19 August 2014

Obesity Complication of Stroke

By Kyle J. Norton

Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

How to calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

Besides cancer and heart diseases, stroke is the third leading cause of death. Approximate 1/4 of all stroke victims die as a direct result of the stroke or it's complications. Stroke is caused by uncontrolled diet that is high in saturated and trans fats resulting in cholesterol build up in the arteries and high blood pressure. In other words, if cholesterol building up in the arteries is blocking the circulation of blood in any part of the body causing oxygen not to be delivered to the brain, resulting in some cells in the brain to die off and are unable reproduce, then we have stroke. Other strokes happen when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures causing the cells in your brain to be deprived of oxygen in your blood, they die and never come back.

How Obesity associates with Stroke
1. In a study of "Evaluation of the Obesity Genes FTO and MC4R and the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Gene TCF7L2 for Contribution to Stroke Risk: The Mannheim-Heidelberg Stroke Study" by Winter Y, Back T, Scherag A, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S, Lanczik O, Hinney A, Scherag S, Neumaier M, Ringleb PA, Dodel R, Hebebrand J., posted in PubMed, researchers found that the observed trends of obesity risk alleles for risk of stroke/TIA as well as the possible sex-specific differences in clinical outcomes found for the TCF7L2 (rs7903146) require replication in future studies. Our study demonstrates that candidate gene studies for common stroke may benefit from focusing on polymorphisms that predispose to vascular risk.

2. According to the study of "Trends in stroke hospitalizations and associated risk factors among children and young adults, 1995-2008" by George MG, Tong X, Kuklina EV, Labarthe DR., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that During the period of study, the prevalence of hospitalizations of acute ischemic stroke increased among all age and gender groups except females aged 5 to 14 years. Females aged 15 to 34 years and males and females aged 35 to 44 years showed a decrease in the prevalence of hospitalizations for subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas females aged 5 to 14 years showed increases for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, lipid disorders, and tobacco use were among the most common coexisting conditions, and their prevalence increased from 1995 to 2008 among adolescents and young adults (aged 15-44 years) hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke.

3. In the study of "Weight of the obesity epidemic: rising stroke rates among middle-aged women in the United States" by Towfighi A, Zheng L, Ovbiagele B., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Stroke prevalence among women aged 35 to 54 years has tripled over the past 2 decades, at the same time remaining stable among men. Prevalence of obesity and 3 metabolic syndrome components increased; they may be key factors in the increase in women's stroke prevalence.

4. According to the study of "Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK" by Wang YC, McPherson K, Marsh T, Gortmaker SL, Brown M., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that These trends project 65 million more obese adults in the USA and 11 million more obese adults in the UK by 2030, consequently accruing an additional 6-8·5 million cases of diabetes, 5·7-7·3 million cases of heart disease and stroke, 492,000-669,000 additional cases of cancer, and 26-55 million quality-adjusted life years forgone for USA and UK combined.

5. In a study of "Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004" by Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents and obesity among men increased significantly during the 6-year period from 1999 to 2004; among women, no overall increases in the prevalence of obesity were observed. These estimates were based on a 6-year period and suggest that the increases in body weight are continuing in men and in children and adolescents while they may be leveling off in women.

6. Etc.

Treatments of Obesity and Stroke
1. Accoesing to the abstract of the study of `Targeting the melanocortin receptor system for anti-stroke therapy` by Holloway PM, Smith HK, Renshaw D, Flower RJ, Getting SJ, Gavins FN., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Stroke continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide, with risk factors including smoking, diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The pathophysiology of stroke is highly complex: reintroduction of blood flow to the infarcted brain region is paramount in limiting ischaemic damage caused by stroke, yet a concomitant inflammatory response can compound tissue damage. The possibilities of pro-resolving treatments that target this inflammatory response have only recently begun to be explored. This review discusses the endogenous roles of the melanocortin system in reducing characterized aspects of inflammation, and how these, together with potent neuroprotective actions, suggest its potential as a therapeutic target in stroke.

2. In a study of `Preventing increased blood pressure in the obese Zucker rat improves severity of stroke`by Osmond JM, Mintz JD, Stepp DW., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Cerebral ischemia was induced for 60 min using an intralumenal suture technique, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. HCT treatment effectively prevented the increase in blood pressure in obese rats; however, the LS diet did not lower pressure. Importantly, infarct size was normalized by HCT after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Additionally, HCT improved the changes in MCA structure observed in untreated OZRs. There were no benefits of the LS diet on stroke injury or vessel structure. These results indicate that increased pressure is essential for driving the changes in infarct size in OZRs.

3. According to the study of `Three-month exercise and weight loss program improves heart rate recovery in obese persons along with cardiopulmonary function`by Nagashima J, Musha H, Takada H, Takagi K, Mita T, Mochida T, Yoshihisa T, Imagawa Y, Matsumoto N, Ishige N, Fujimaki R, Nakajima H, Murayama M., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Our data demonstrated that HRR can be improved in obese subjects by a 3-month exercise and weight loss program. Improvement in cardiopulmonary function by exercise seems to be the main contributor to the increment of HRR.

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