Monday, 31 October 2016

Regular Walking Reduces Risk and Complications of Hypertension in Older Adults

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. High blood pressure means raising pressure in your heart.If it stays high over time it can damage the body in many ways.
Blood pressure medications have undoubtedly prevented many deaths from heart disease in the past 30 years, but they have many side effects such as damaging the kidney. If you can control your diet, such as making changes to lifestyle, maintaining ideal weight and diet with low salt, you could do just fine without the drugs. According to the UT Southwestern Medical Center, prevalent users of high blood pressure medications were recovered after long term of maximal exercise(1).

But there is a concern of experts in the discontinued intake of medication contributed to risks of macrovascular events, microvascular events together and separately and all-cause mortality(2).

The 2008 joint study of a total of 4294773 patients diagnosed with hypertension and subsequently prescribed anti-hypertensive medications led by the University College of Medicine, suggested the importance of medication adherence (MA) and the incidence of complications in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension because of its highly prevalent rate of complications(4).

Regular physical activity has long been found to associate to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases, but regular walking contribution of reduced risk and complications of hypertension in the younger and older elderly have been lacking, probably due to the effectiveness of modern medication in syndrome of controlling (3).

Does regular walking reduces risk of hypertension?
Dr. Okura T and colleagues at the Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine insisted, regular physical activity (PA), including daily walking, not only reduces the risk of many chronic diseases, especially hypertension" but also induces the controlled BP in hypertensive patients."(5).

The review of 2246 citations; 26 studies with a total of 2767 participants also suggested that the use of a pedometer is associated with significant increases in physical activity and significant decreases in body mass index and blood pressure(6).

Does regular walking reduces risk of hypertension complications?

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) led by the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA showed that a culturally-tailored community-based walking reduces stroke risk by increasing physical activity among African American, Latino, Chinese, and Korean seniors with hypertension(7).

Dr. Pugh D said, " regular exercise can produce up to a 30% reduction in all cause mortality with a 35% lower risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke" and "There is evidence to show that 37% of CHD deaths can be attributed to physical inactivity compared with 19% and 13% for smoking hypertension respectively"(8).

Taking altogether, there are strong evidences to suggest that regular walking Reduces Risk and Complications of Hypertension patients with or without syndrome of hypertension, particular in Older Adults populations.

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(1) Heart Rate Recovery and Systolic Blood Pressure Recovery After Maximal Exercise in Prevalent Users of Stimulant Medications by Westover AN1, Nakonezny PA, Barlow CE, Adinoff B, Brown ES, Halm EA, Vongpatanasin W, DeFina LF.(PubMed)
(2) Risks associated with permanent discontinuation of blood pressure-lowering medications in patients with type 2 diabetes by Hirakawa Y1, Arima H, Webster R, Zoungas S, Li Q, Harrap S, Lisheng L, Hamet P, Mancia G, Poulter N, Neal B, Williams B, Rogers A,Woodward M, Chalmers J.(PubMed)
(3) Examining the relationship between antihypertensive medication satisfaction and adherencein older patients by Al-Ruthia YS1, Hong SH2, Graff C3, Kocak M4, Solomon D5, Nolly R6.(PubMed)
(4) Medication Adherence and the Occurrence of Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Hypertension by Kim HJ1, Yoon SJ2, Oh IH3, Lim JH3, Kim YA4.(PubMed)
(5) The Importance of Walking for Control of Blood Pressure: Proof Using a Telemedicine System by Okura T1, Enomoto D2, Miyoshi KI1, Nagao T1, Kukida M1, Akiko T1, Pei Z1, Higaki J1, Uemura H3.(PubMed)
(6) Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: a systematic review by Bravata DM1, Smith-Spangler C, Sundaram V, Gienger AL, Lin N, Lewis R, Stave CD, Olkin I, Sirard JR.(PubMed)
(7) Study protocol of "Worth the Walk": a randomized controlled trial of a stroke risk reductionwalking intervention among racial/ethnic minority older adults with hypertension in community senior centers by Kwon I1, Choi S2, Mittman B3, Bharmal N4, Liu H5, Vickrey B6, Song S7, Araiza D8, McCreath H9, Seeman T10, Oh SM11, Trejo L12,Sarkisian C13(PubMed)
(8) Time to encourage patients to take more exercise by Pugh D1.(PubMed)

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