Saturday, 6 June 2015

Stress management herbal medicine for Polycystic ovary syndrome

By Kyle J. Norton
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women. Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).

                In Herbal Medicine

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(828).

The stress response and management herbs

Stress in a natural reaction of human fight or fight response induced by pressure due to such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. Long term stress can cause deleterious and cumulative effects on human body(1104), including emotional or cognitive problems, such as an increased risk of attentional deficit/hyperactivity, anxiety, and language delay(1103), especially for people with chronic illness, including women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs)(1105).

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
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Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

Ashwagandha(Withania somnifera), also known as Indian Ginseng is a nightshade plant belongings to the family Solanaceae, native to India, northern Africa, and the Middle East used in Ayurvedic medicine over 3000 years(1101) as antitumors(1107)(1108), anti ulcers(1111), anti-stress(1112)(1115)(1118), cognition Dysfunction(1109)(1110)(1118), anti-inflammatory(1113)(1116), antioxidant(1114)(1117), immunomoduratory(1120)(1121), anti-aging(1119), etc., herbal medicine.

1. Isopelletierine
2. Anaferine
3. Cuseohygrine
4. Anahygrine
5. Withanolides
6. Withaferins
7. Saponins
8. Sitoindosides
9. Acylsterylglucosides
10. Z-Guggulsterone(1106)

10. Etc. 

Epidemiological strong evidences suggested that herbal ashwagandha processes anti stress related disorders( induced by oxidative stress(1122)(1123) and long term stress(1123) effects, probably through its antioxidant(1123)(1124)(1126), anti-stress(1112)(1115)(1118) effects. In rat model, hydroalcoholic extract enhances its antioxidant effect against psychological symptoms(1132) induced by long term stress, such as reduced motor performance(1124), cognitive impairmen(1125)(1126, anxiety(1127)(1128), sleep disorder(1129)(1130), depression(1131), etc. In phyisological symptoms, the herb has showed to reduce fatigue(1133) risk of hypertension(1134), risk of stroke(1135). risk of diabetes(1136), improve energy(1132), etc...

(1106) Simultaneous Estimation of Withaferin A and Z-Guggulsterone in Marketed Formulation by RP-HPLC by Agrawal P1, Vegda R2, Laddha K2.(PubMed)
(1107) Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: components, activity and pathway analyses by Widodo N1, Takagi Y, Shrestha BG, Ishii T, Kaul SC, Wadhwa R.(PubMed)
(1108) Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect by Widodo N1, Kaur K, Shrestha BG, Takagi Y, Ishii T, Wadhwa R, Kaul SC.(PubMed)
(1109) Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants by Pingali U1, Pilli R1, Fatima N1.(PubMed)
(1110) Randomized placebo-controlled adjunctive study of an extract of withania somnifera for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder by Chengappa KN1, Bowie CR, Schlicht PJ, Fleet D, Brar JS, Jindal R.(PubMed)
(1111) Evaluation of the anti-ulcer activity of NR-ANX-C (a polyherbal formulation) in aspirin & pyloric ligature induced gastric ulcers in albino rats by Nair V1, Arjuman A, Gopalakrishna HN, Dorababu P, Mirshad PV, Bhargavan D, Chatterji D.(PubMed)
(1112) Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract on amelioration of oxidative stress and autoantibodies production in collagen-induced arthritic rats by Khan MA, Subramaneyaan M, Arora VK, Banerjee BD, Ahmed RS.(PubMed)
(1113) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Withania somnifera root on collagen-induced arthritis in rats by Gupta A1, Singh S.(PubMed)
(1114) Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder in relation to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, glycoproteins and bone collagen on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats by Rasool M1, Varalakshmi P.(PubMed)
(1115) Withania somnifera Improves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility by Mahdi AA1, Shukla KK, Ahmad MK, Rajender S, Shankhwar SN, Singh V, Dalela D.(PubMed)
(1116) Withaferin A inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced damage to islets in culture and following transplantation by SoRelle JA1, Itoh T, Peng H, Kanak MA, Sugimoto K, Matsumoto S, Levy MF, Lawrence MC, Naziruddin B.(PubMed)
(1117) Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Rasayana drugs in healthy human volunteers by Kuchewar VV1, Borkar MA2, Nisargandha MA3.(PubMed)
(1118) Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) in neurobehavioural disorders induced by brain oxidative stress in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Durg S1, Dhadde SB, Vandal R, Shivakumar BS, Charan CS.(PubMed)
(1119) In vitro protective effects of Withania somnifera (L.) dunal root extract against hydrogen peroxide and β-amyloid(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells by Kumar S1, Seal CJ, Howes MJ, Kite GC, Okello EJ.(PubMed)
(1120) Chemotypical variations in Withania somnifera lead to differentially modulated immune response in BALB/c mice by Kushwaha S1, Roy S, Maity R, Mallick A, Soni VK, Singh PK, Chaurasiya ND, Sangwan RS, Misra-Bhattacharya S, Mandal C.(PubMed)
(1121) Molecular insight into the immune up-regulatory properties of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha and identification of Th1 immunostimulatory chemical entity by Khan S1, Malik F, Suri KA, Singh J.(PubMed)
(1122) Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and anti-oxidative activities of leaf extract from in vivo and in vitro raised Ashwagandha by Kaur K1, Rani G, Widodo N, Nagpal A, Taira K, Kaul SC, Wadhwa R.(PubMed)
(1123) Anti-oxidant effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides in chronic footshock stress-induced perturbations of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex and striatum by Bhattacharya A1, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK.(PubMed)
(1124) Evaluation of Withania somnifera in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats by Chaudhary G1, Sharma U, Jagannathan NR, Gupta YK.(PubMed)
(1125) Propoxur-induced acetylcholine esterase inhibition and impairment of cognitive function: attenuation by Withania somnifera by Yadav CS1, Kumar V, Suke SG, Ahmed RS, Mediratta PK, Banerjee BD.(PubMed)
(1126) Attenuation of oxidative damage-associated cognitive decline by Withania somnifera in rat model of streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairment by Ahmed ME1, Javed H, Khan MM, Vaibhav K, Ahmad A, Khan A, Tabassum R, Islam F, Safhi MM, Islam F.(PubMed)
(1127) An alternative treatment for anxiety: a systematic review of human trial results reported for the Ayurvedic herb ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) by Pratte MA1, Nanavati KB, Young V, Morley CP.(PubMed)
(1128) Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence by Sarris J1, McIntyre E, Camfield DA.(PubMed)
(1129) Effect of Withania somnifera on Sleep-Wake Cycle in Sleep-Disturbed Rats: Possible GABAergic Mechanism by Kumar A1, Kalonia H.(PubMed)
(1130) Protective effect of Withania somnifera Dunal on the behavioral and biochemical alterations in sleep-disturbed mice (Grid over water suspended method) by Kumar A1, Kalonia H.(PubMed)
(1131) Protective effect of Withania somnifera dunal root extract against protracted social isolation induced behavior in rats by Gupta GL1, Rana AC.(PubMed)
(1132) An overview on ashwagandha: a Rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda by Singh N1, Bhalla M, de Jager P, Gilca M.(PubMed)
(1133) Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on the development of chemotherapy-induced fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients by Biswal BM1, Sulaiman SA, Ismail HC, Zakaria H, Musa KI.(PubMed)
(1134) Withania somnifera shows a protective effect in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension by Kaur G1, Singh N, Samuel SS, Bora HK, Sharma S, Pachauri SD, Dwivedi AK, Siddiqui HH, Hanif K.(PubMed)
(1135) Withania somnifera Improves Ischemic Stroke Outcomes by Attenuating PARP1-AIF-Mediated Caspase-Independent Apoptosis by Raghavan A1, Shah ZA.(PubMed)
(1136) The aqueous extract of Withania coagulans fruit partially reverses nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats by Shukla K1, Dikshit P, Shukla R, Gambhir JK.(PubMed)

Ginseng (Panax spp.)

(See Herbal treatment for PCOs for more information)
[ Ginseng Asia is also known as Panax ginseng. Since it has been grown in the cold places in the Asian, Asian ginseng is considered as yang promoting, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) in the experiment in PCOs induced rodent, improved PCO-related ovarian dysfunction(830). In rat model, induced by injection of estradiol valerate (EV), the extract also regulated sympathetic nerve activity by significantly lower expression of NGF protein (involved in the growth of peripheral nerve cells) and NGF mRNA(the form of RNA that carries information from DNA) involved in the abnormal process caused by steroid-induced PCO(830). Also, in the experiment of Ginseng total saponins (GTS) involved polycystic ovaries induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg estradiol valerate (EV) in rats, GTS decreased the expression of NGF in ovary tissue(831)].

(See herbal medicine for weight loss)
[Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root)(791).
In 10 obese middle-aged Korean women who took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk, showed  effectively in influence on gut microbiota in promoting weigh loss but depending to the composition of gut microbiota prior to ginseng intake(792). In mice fed on a high-fat diet, ginseng saponin and ginsenosides not only exerted anti-obesity effects via the modulation of physiological lipid metabolism in vivo or intracellular signalling in cell culture systems, but also promoted anti-obesity effects, through abnormal physiology via HFD. Leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, which carry out critical functions in energy and lipid metabolism(793)].

The Phytochemicals
1. Ginsenoside
2.  Notoginsenoside
3.  Chikusetsuaponin IV
4. Panaxynol
5. Ginsenyne
6. Alpha pansinsene
7. Beta pansinsene
8. Beta farnesene
9. Bicyclogermacrene
10. Beta elemene
11. Gama elemene
12. Alpha neodovene
13. Beta neodovene
14. Alpha humulene
15. Beta humulene
16. Caryophyllene
17. Beta gurjunene
18. Alpha gurjunene
19. Citric acid
20.  Isocitric acid
21.  Fumaric acid
22. Oleic acid,
23. Linoleic acid
24. Beta sitosterol
25. Stigmasterol
26. Daucosterol
27. Sitosteryl-o-(6-O-fatty acyl)-glucpyranoside
28. Etc.

 Panax ginseng, native to Korea, one of most frequent and wonderful used over thousand years in herbal medicine for improvement of male over all health due to aging diminished steroidal hormone in Asian(1138)  has found to process significant anti-stress (1137)(1143)(1144), such as adapt to stress(1138) through reverted cholesterol (CL), creatine kinase (CK) activity(1137)  anti oxidative stress(1139)(1142)(1146) through its elevation in catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as scavenger enzymes(1139). antioxidant effects(1140).
In immobilized mice, orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 found in Panax ginseng exhibited its anti stress effects through regulation of serum levels of corticosterone(1145) and interleukin (IL)-6(1141). 
In chronic unpredictable mild stress rat model, ginsenosides also ameliorated stress symptoms of depression(1147)(1149)(1150) through significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes(1147) and cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations through improved corticosterone levels; and attenuated oxidative-nitrergic stress(1148).
In stress induced metabolic syndrome(1151), ginseng' saponins (ginsenosides) are proven effectively for its properties of anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems, according to Louisana State University System(1152).

(1137) Anti-stress effects of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng: a comparative study by Rai D1, Bhatia G, Sen T, Palit G.(PubMed)
(1138) Ginseng, Korean(The free dictionary by Farlet)
(1139) Effects of Panax ginseng extract on exercise-induced oxidative stress by Kim SH1, Park KS, Chang MJ, Sung JH.(PubMed)
(1140) Saponins from Panax japonicus attenuate D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in rats by Wang T1, Di G, Yang L, Dun Y, Sun Z, Wan J, Peng B, Liu C, Xiong G, Zhang C, Yuan D. (PubMed)
(1141) Anti-stress effects of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol in immobilized mice by Oh HA1, Kim DE, Choi HJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH.(PubMed)
(1142) Protective effect of panax notoginseng saponins on acute ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and reducing ethanol-mediated oxidative stress by Ding RB1, Tian K, Cao YW, Bao JL, Wang M, He C, Hu Y, Su H, Wan JB.(PubMed)
(1143) [The anti-stress effect of saponins extracted from panax ginseng fruit and the hypophyseal-adrenal system (author's transl)].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang SC, Jiang XL.(PubMed)
(1144) Ginseng and the hypothalamic-pituitary control of stress by Fulder SJ.(PubMed)
(1145) Stimulation of pituitary-adrenocortical system by ginseng saponin by Hiai S, Yokoyama H, Oura H, Yano S.(PubMed)
(1146) [Study on the mechanism of action of total saponins of Panax notoginseng in ameliorating oxidative stress and insulin resistance in rats fed with high fat diet].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang SS1, Wu ZY2, Chen JM3, Guo QK2, Li L2, Wang ZF2, Gao Y4, Ma ZC4.(PubMed)
(1147) [Effects of ginsenosides on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress].[Article in Chinese] by Liu L1, Luo Y, Zhang R, Guo J.(PubMed)
(1148) Modulation of nitrergic signalling pathway by American ginseng attenuates chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations by Rinwa P1, Kumar A.(PubMed)
(1149) Ginsenoside Rb3 exerts antidepressant-like effects in several animal models by Cui J1, Jiang L, Xiang H.(PubMed)
(1150) Antidepressant effects of ginseng total saponins in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress models of depression by Dang H1, Chen Y, Liu X, Wang Q, Wang L, Jia W, Wang Y.(PubMed)
(1151) Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Disease and Other Disorders by Lale Ozcan and Ira Tabas(PubMed)
(1152) Traditional chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome by Yin J1, Zhang H, Ye J.(PubMed)


(See herbal treatment of PCOs for more information)
[Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy(856), anti inflammation(855), anti ulcer(857), anti convulsion(858) agent  and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain, and improve cardiac function(855), etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels(859).
In treatment of PCOs(862), combination of licorice and 100 mg spironolactone showed the activation of the renin-aldosterone system in lowering blood pressure and water (fluid) balance(860). reducing the prevalence of side effects related to the diuretic activity of spironolactone(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), showed the decrease of serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increase of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(865)].

(See The Insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herbs: Licorice for more information)
1. PCOs
[ Licorice, in a review of 33 studies of herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), showed a stronge evidences in improved metabolic hormone profile and improved fertility outcomes and  regulation of ovulation and inhibition of hyperandrogenism in PCOS(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), also decreased serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increased of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(860)(865). According to University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, licorice may have a potential effect on metabolic syndrome(862) in women with PCOs.

2. Blow flow
Licorice improves the blood flow in the body by exerting its anti thrombosis(983) and inhibiting the levels of bad cholesterol(984)(985) and triglyceride levels(985) and  increasing HDL-cholesterol content(984) in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(985) and blood stagnation(897) in the abdominal region induced induced infertility(986).

3. Glycyrrhizin
Glycyrrhizin, one of main ingredient from licorice, exhibited anti inflammatory effect pharmacologically in treatment of inflammatory diseases(988)(989)(990), lowered high serum testosterone levels in oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic women, and induced conception in some women(991). As antioxidant, the phytochemical also inhibit irregular cell growth(992)(993) and microbial invasion(994)(995) causes of cancers(992)(993) and infection and inflammation(994)(995) respectively. in adrenocortical function and behavour, it also regulated the levels of cortisol(996), induced by over production of serotonin cause of hormone imbalance(997).

4.  Phytoestrogen
See phytoestrogen in black cohosh
[Phytoestrogen found it balck cohosh showed to occupy the estrogen receptor sites in women body(908), through it antiestrogenic and extrogenic effects(909), to induce hormone balancing may result in improving the chance of ovulation and fertility(910)(911)].

5. Lecithin
Lecithin is a fat like substance called a phospholipid improved lipid transfer, cholesterol efflux, HDL genesis and and remodeling at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)(998). against cells from oxidation surrounding the brain(999), in reducing psychotic symptoms(1002) such as stress(1000)(1001), and depression(1002).
Side effects
1. It may raise blood pressure(1003)(1004(1006)
2. Long term usage of large dosage can also cause edema(1004)(1006) and hypokalemia(1004)(1005)(1006).
3. Overdose can be toxic(106), in inducing rhabdomyolysis or myoglobinuria(1006).
4. Etc.]
1. Glycyrrhizic acid
2. Licochalcone A
3. Licochalcone B
4. Licoflavone
5. Liquiritin
5. Liquiritigenin
7. Isoliquiritigenin
8. Ononins
9. 4′,7-dihydroxyflavone
10. Glycyrrhetinic acid 
11. 11-deoxyglycyrrhetinic acid
12. β-sitosterol
13. Etc.
Licorice's phytochemicals, especially  glycyrrhizin,  have shown efffectively in ameliorated insulin resistance(1059)(1061)(1063)(1064), hyperglycemia(1059)(1060), dyslipidemia(1059)(1063) and oxidative stress(1064) in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome(1059)(1061)(1063) in animal(1059)(1060)(1061)models, probably through its interference of the development of visceral obesity(1064) and cellular derailments that are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome(1062), anti inflammatory(1062), antioxidant(1062) and an associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition(1063) effects].

In chronic unpredictable stress rat model, total flavonoids extract(1153) (licorice flavonoids, LF) and liquiritin(1154), a phyochemical found in locorice exerted anti-depressive(1153)(1154)(1155) and anti-cognitive impairment(1156) property through total flavonoids extract neurogenesis protective effect(1153) and defense of liquiritin and flavonoids extract against oxidative stress(1154)(1156).
Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese formula, containing licorice showed effectively in amelioration of   behavioral symptoms, such as aggressiveness, excitability, and hallucination, through reduced stress  increased the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors density on the plasma membrane of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)(1158).
In  high-glucose stress, Glabridin(1159)(1160), an isoflavan from licorice root reduced high-glucose stress(1159)(1160) through its anti inflammatory activity(1159), up-regulates manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase and paraoxonase 2(1160).
In anti oxidative stress, licorice showed to contribute to their overall health promoting pharmacological effects against free radicals(1161)(1162)(1163)(1164) induced diseases such as cancer(1161), cardiac dysfunction(1162) liver diosease(1164), etc., through its anti-inflammatory(1161)(1163)(1164), anti-oxidant activities(1161)(1162)(1163)(1164).
According to University of Western Sydney, Glycyrrhiza glabra, one of Chinese herbs, exhibited strong evidences of neuroprotective activity for promotion of healthy ageing and longevity(1157).

(1153) [Antidepressant activities of flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and its neurogenesis protective effect in rats].[Article in Chinese] by Fan ZZ1, Zhao WH, Guo J, Cheng RF, Zhao JY, Yang WD, Wang YH, Li W, Peng XD.(PubMed)

(1154) Antidepressant-like effect of liquiritin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis in chronic variable stress induced depression model rats by Zhao Z1, Wang W, Guo H, Zhou D.(PubMed)
(1155) Metabonomic study on chronic unpredictable mild stress and intervention effects of Xiaoyaosan in rats using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry by Gao X1, Zheng X, Li Z, Zhou Y, Sun H, Zhang L, Guo X, Du G, Qin X.(PubMed)
(1156) Neuroprotective effects of flavonoids extracted from licorice on kainate-induced seizure in mice through their antioxidant properties by Zeng LH1, Zhang HD, Xu CJ, Bian YJ, Xu XJ, Xie QM, Zhang RH.(PubMed)

(1157) An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity by Shen B, Truong J, Helliwell R, Govindaraghavan S, Sucher NJ1.(PubMed)
(1158) Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, decreases head-twitch behaviors and serotonin 2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex of isolation-stressed mice, by Ueki T1, Mizoguchi K2, Yamaguchi T2, Nishi A2, Sekiguchi K2, Ikarashi Y2, Kase Y2.(PubMed)
(1159) Glabridin, an isoflavan from licorice root, downregulates iNOS expression and activity under high-glucose stress and inflammation by Yehuda I1, Madar Z, Leikin-Frenkel A, Tamir S.(PubMed)
(1160) Glabridin, a phytoestrogen from licorice root, up-regulates manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase and paraoxonase 2 under glucose stress by Yehuda I1, Madar Z, Szuchman-Sapir A, Tamir S.(PubMed)
(1161) Anti-inflammatory/Anti-oxidative stress activities and differential regulation of Nrf2-mediated genes by non-polar fractions of tea Chrysanthemum zawadskii and licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis by Wu TY1, Khor TO, Saw CL, Loh SC, Chen AI, Lim SS, Park JH, Cai L, Kong AN.(PubMed)
(1162) Licorice treatment prevents oxidative stress, restores cardiac function, and salvages myocardium in rat model of myocardial injury by Ojha SK1, Sharma C1, Golechha MJ1, Bhatia J1, Kumari S2, Arya DS3.(PubMed)
(1163) Licochalcone A activates Nrf2 in vitro and contributes to licorice extract-induced lowered cutaneous oxidative stress in vivo by Kühnl J1, Roggenkamp D, Gehrke SA, Stäb F, Wenck H, Kolbe L, Neufang G.(PubMed)
(1164) 18-β Glycyrrhetinic acid alleviates 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats: Role in hyperproliferation, inflammation and oxidative stress by Hasan S1, Khan R1, Ali N1, Khan A1, Rehman M1, Tahir M1, Lateef A1, Nafees S1, Mehdi S1, Rashid S1, Shahid A1, Sultana S2.(PubMed)

Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea) 

Rhodiola Rosea, one of the perennial plant grows in coldest region in the world, including the Arctic, is a genus Rhodiola, belongings to the family Crassulaceae,  used  in traditional medicine as an antiaging(1167) agent, and to treat fatigue(1168)(1169), depression(1170)(1171), anemia(1172), impotence(1173), inflammation(1174), infections(1175), nervous system disorders(1176)(1177), enhance physical endurance(1178), and increase an organism's resistance to stress(1167)(1179).etc.

1 .Salidroside
2. Sosavin
3. Rosin
4. Sosarin
5. Tyrosol
6. Lignan major compounds in the
7. Heterodontoside,
8. Viridoside
9. Mongrhoside
10. Cyanogenic glucoside rhodiocyanoside A
11. Epigallocatechin and gallate
12 . Epiga
13. Etc.

In an evaluating anti-stress effects, rhodiola rosea, exhibited  positive effects on mental and physical performance under stress(1180)(1181), improved attention and cognitive function associated with its antidepressant activity(1180)(1182) and stress-protective effect of adaptogen(1181), through regulation of nitric oxide (NO) and cortisol levels(1180)(1181).
According to Gesundheitsbezirk Bozen,, rhodiola rosea active substance phenylpropanoide also processed sedative, anti-depressive(1180) and stress-modulated properties through stimulating the distribution of dopamine and serotonin(1182).
In animal model, the herb showed to display antidepressant(1181)(1182)(1184), adaptogenic(1181)(1184), anxiolytic(1184)(1186), nociceptive(1183)(1185) and locomotor activities(1186) induced by intense physical and psychological stress(1183).
In oxidative stress induced animal models, rhodiola is effective in the empowerment of performance(1187), modulation of the immune system(1187) against oxidative damage(1187).
Salidroside (SAL), an active component of Rhodiola rosea protect endothelium(1189) against H2O2-induced endothelial dysfunction(1188)(1189) and oxidative-stress-associated cardiovascular dysfunction(1189) through preventing the overactivation of oxidative stress-related downstream signaling pathways(1188).

(1165) Phylogenetic and Phytochemical Characteristics of Plant Species with Adaptogenic Properties by Robyn KLein. CHAPTER 6
(1166) Phytochemical characterization of an adaptogenic preparation from Rhodiola heterodonta by Grace MH1, Yousef GG, Kurmukov AG, Raskin I, Lila MA.(PubMed)
(1167) Rhodiola: a promising anti-aging Chinese herb. by Jafari M1, Felgner JS, Bussel II, Hutchili T, Khodayari B, Rose MR, Vince-Cruz C, Mueller LD.(PubMed)
(1168) Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rhodiola rosea Extract in Mice by Kang DZ1, Hong HD2, Kim KI3, Choi SY4.(PubMed)
(1169) Rhodiola rosea for mental and physical fatigue in nursing students: a randomized controlled trial by Punja S1, Shamseer L2, Olson K3, Vohra S4.(PubMed)
(1170) Rhodiola rosea versus sertraline for major depressive disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial by Mao JJ1, Xie SX2, Zee J2, Soeller I3, Li QS3, Rockwell K4, Amsterdam JD5.(PubMed)
(1171) Rhodiola rosea therapy for major depressive disorder: a study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial by Mao JJ1, Li QS2, Soeller I2, Xie SX3, Amsterdam JD4.(PubMed)
(1172) [Effect of salidroside on bone marrow cell cycle and expression of apoptosis-related proteins in bone marrow cells of bone marrow depressed anemia mice]. [Article in Chinese] by Zhang XS1, Zhu BD, Hung XQ, Chen YF.(PubMed)
(1173) Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis by Chan SW1.(PubMed)
(1174) Rhodiola inhibits dengue virus multiplication by inducing innate immune response genes RIG-I, MDA5 and ISG in human monocytes by Diwaker D1, Mishra KP, Ganju L, Singh SB.(PubMed)
(1175) Sambucus nigra extracts inhibit infectious bronchitis virus at an early point during replication by Chen C, Zuckerman DM, Brantley S, Sharpe M, Childress K, Hoiczyk E, Pendleton AR1.(PubMed)
(1176) [Advance in studies on pharmacological effect of salidroside on nervous system diseases]. [Article in Chinese] by Xie H1, Zhu DH.(PubMed)
(1177) Protective effects of a Rhodiola crenulata extract and salidroside on hippocampal neurogenesis against streptozotocin-induced neural injury in the rat by Qu ZQ1, Zhou Y, Zeng YS, Lin YK, Li Y, Zhong ZQ, Chan WY.(PubMed)
(1178) The effects of an acute dose of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance by Noreen EE1, Buckley JG, Lewis SL, Brandauer J, Stuempfle KJ.(PubMed)
(1179) Effects of plant extracts on the reversal of glucose-induced impairment of stress-resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by Fitzenberger E1, Deusing DJ, Wittkop A, Kler A, Kriesl E, Bonnländer B, Wenzel U.(PubMed)
(1180) The adaptogens rhodiola and schizandra modify the response to immobilization stress in rabbits by suppressing the increase of phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide and cortisol by Panossian A1, Hambardzumyan M, Hovhanissyan A, Wikman G.(PubMed)
(1182) [The interaction of Rhodiola rosea and antidepressants. A case report]. [Article in German] by Maniscalco I1, Toffol E, Giupponi G, Conca A.(PubMed)
(1183) Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice by Perfumi M1, Mattioli L.(PubMed)
(1184) Characterization of the anxiolytic activity of Nunavik Rhodiola rosea by Cayer C1, Ahmed F, Filion V, Saleem A, Cuerrier A, Allard M, Rochefort G, Merali Z, Arnason JT.(PubMed)
(1185) Synergistic interactions between the antinociceptive effect of Rhodiola rosea extract and B vitamins in the mouse formalin test by Montiel-Ruiz RM1, González-Trujano ME, Déciga-Campos M.(PubMed)
(1186) Pharmacological evaluation of Potentilla alba L. in mice: adaptogenic and central nervous system effects by Shikov AN1, Lazukina MA, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarova MN, Golubeva OV, Makarov VG, Djachuk GI.(PubMed)
(1187) Effects of herbal supplements on the immune system in relation to exercise by Megna M1, Amico AP, Cristella G, Saggini R, Jirillo E, Ranieri M.(PubMed)
(1188) Salidroside stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and protects against H₂O₂-induced endothelial dysfunction by Xing S1, Yang X1, Li W1, Bian F1, Wu D1, Chi J1, Xu G1, Zhang Y1, Jin S1.(PubMed)
(1189) Salidroside improves homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress by Leung SB1, Zhang H, Lau CW, Huang Y, Lin Z.(PubMed)

Rhaponticum or Maral root 

Rhaponticum also known as Maral root, is an herbaceous perennial plant belongings  the family Asteraceae, used in traditional Siberian, Russian and Chinese medicine as anti-depressant(1191)(1192), anti anxiety(1192), anti menopausal complaints(1192)(1193), antioxidant(1194)(1195), immunomodulatory(1194)(1195), anticancerogenic(1194)(1196)(1197), antimicrobial(1194)(1195)(1198)(1199) and adaptogen agent(1194) and to treat impotence(1194), enhance mental and physical performance(1194)(1200), support the nervous(1194)(1201) and cardiovascular system(1194)(1202)(1203), improve work capacity(1194), etc.

1. Rosavin
2. Rosin
3. Rosarin
4. Salidroside
5. Ecdysteroids
6. Flavonoids
7. Phenolic acids
8. Polyacetylenes,
9. Sesquiterpene lactones
10. Triterpenoid glycosides
11. Terpenes
12. Etc.

In in Wistar rats model, N-feruloylserotonins, isolated from the seeds of Leuzea carthamoides (WILLD.) DC, showed effectively in selective stress-reducing effects against stress-sensitive, such as reduced anxiety in the high-pain(1005).
In AdMax formulas, containing  Leuzea carthamoides Iljin, Rhodiola rosea L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, and from dry berries of Schizandra chinensis Baill, improve response to stimulus and stress, physical endurance and counteract fatigue accordiung to Genext Research, Inc.(1006).
According to Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, herbal rhaponticum also processed anti metabolic syndrome(1204) such as serum lipid profile(1207)(1204), corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroprogesterone,(1208)(1204) and cytokine concentrations(1209)(1204), glucose tolerance(1211)(1204), systolic blood pressure(1212)(1204), triacylglycerol accumulation(1207)(1204)(1204) and its induction of inflammation(1210)(1204), stress(1204)(1214), and hepatic steatosis(1213) in rat model(1004).
In Oxidative(respiratory) burst, is a chain reaction of rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells, N-feruloylserotonin (N-f-5HT) isomers(1215)(1216)) isolated from seeds of Leuzea carthamoides (Wild) DC, inhibited dose-dependent oxidative burst in human through its pharmacological activity against oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion, inflammation and other pathological conditions(1215)(1216).

(1190) Review Chemistry and pharmacology of Rhaponticum carthamoides: A review Ladislav Kokoska a,*, Dagmar Janovska(Elsevier)
(1191) [The use of a decoction of the rhizome of Leuzea carthamoides for the treatment of alcoholics with depressive states].[Article in Russian] by Ibatov AN.(PubMed)
(1192) Long-term effects of the rhapontic rhubarb extract ERr 731® on estrogen-regulated targets in the uterus and on the bone in ovariectomized rats by Keiler AM1, Papke A, Kretzschmar G, Zierau O, Vollmer G.(PubMed)
(1193) Treatment of menopausal symptoms by an extract from the roots of rhapontic rhubarb: the role of estrogen receptors by Vollmer G1, Papke A, Zierau O.(PubMed)
(1194) Chemistry and pharmacology of Rhaponticum carthamoides: a review by Kokoska L1, Janovska D.(PubMed)
(1195) A study on the effect of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici on erythrocyte immune function in rats by Yan X1, Zhao H, Guan Y, Song Y, Meng J.(PubMed)
(1196) Anticarcinogenic activity of alpha-difluoromethylornithine, ginseng, eleutherococcus, and leuzea on radiation-induced carcinogenesis in female rats by Bespalov VG1, Alexandrov VA, Semenov AL, Kovan'Ko EG, Ivanov SD.(PubMed)
(1197) Subtype-specific activation of estrogen receptors by a special extract of Rheum rhaponticum (ERr 731), its aglycones and structurally related compounds in U2OS human osteosarcoma cells by Möller F1, Zierau O, Jandausch A, Rettenberger R, Kaszkin-Bettag M, Vollmer G.(PubMed)
(1198) Antimycobacterial effect of extract and its components from Rheum rhaponticum by Smolarz HD1, Swatko-Ossor M, Ginalska G, Medyńska E.(PubMed)
(1199) Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of Rhaponticum (Rhaponticum carthamoides D.C. Iljin) and shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa L.).[Article in English, Lithuanian] by Jurkštienė V1, Pavilonis A, Garšvienė D, Juozulynas A, Samsonienė L, Daukšienė D, Jankauskienė K, Simonienė-Kazlauskienė G, Stankevičius E.(PubMed)
(1200) Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts by Asea A1, Kaur P, Panossian A, Wikman KG.(PubMed)
(1201) [Cerebroprotector activity of Rhaponticum carthamoides extract in rats with brain ischemia].[Article in Russian] by Plotnikov MB, Logvinov SV, Pugachenko NV, Maslov MIu, Aliev OI, Vasil'ev AS, Suslov NI, Potapov AV.(PubMed)
(1202) [Lipid peroxide, membrane fluidity of smooth muscle cells and atherosclerosis].[Article in Chinese] by Lu YC1(PubMed)
(1203) [Cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic properties of preparations from Leuzea carthamoides, Aralia mandshurica, and Eleutherococcus senticosus].[Article in Russian] by Maslov LN, Guzarova NV.(PubMed)

(1204) Effects of rhaponticum carthamoides versus glycyrrhiza glabra and punica granatum extracts on metabolic syndrome signs in rats by Dushkin M1, Khrapova M, Kovshik G, Chasovskikh M, Menshchikova E, Trufakin V, Shurlygina A, Vereschagin E.(PubMed)
(1205) The selective effect of N-feruloylserotonins isolated from Leuzea carthamoides on nociception and anxiety in rats by Yamamotová A1, Pometlová M, Harmatha J, Rasková H, Rokyta R.(PubMed)
(1206) Influence of the plant extract complex "AdMax" on global gene expression levels in cultured human fibroblast(PubMed)
(1207) Dietary rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum) stalk fibre stimulates cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene expression and bile acid excretion in cholesterol-fed C57BL/6J mice by Goel V1, Cheema SK, Agellon LB, Ooraikul B, Basu TK.(PubMed)
(1208) Lack of interference of common phytoecdysteroids with production of nitric oxide by immune-activated mammalian macrophages by Harmatha J1, Vokác K, Kmonícková E, Zídek Z.(PubMed)
(1209) [Effects of Rhaponticum uniforum polysaccharide on immune response of mice after antigen stimulation and their possible mechanisms].[Article in Chinese] by Li FS1, Yang G, Xian F, Liu H.(PubMed)
(1210) Photoprotective and antioxidant effects of Rhubarb: inhibitory action on tyrosinase and tyrosine kinase activities and TNF-α, IL-1α and α-MSH production in human melanocytes by Silveira JP1, Seito LN, Eberlin S, Dieamant GC, Nogueira C, Pereda MC, Di Stasi LC.(PubMed)
(1211) [Estimation of the hypoglycemic effect of phytoecdysteroids].[Article in Russian] by Syrov VN, Iuldasheva NKh, Égamova FR, Ismailova GI, Abdullaev ND, Khushbaktova ZA.(PubMed)
(1212) [Effect of Rhaponticum carthamoides extract on hemorheological properties of blood in rats with arterial hypertension].[Article in Russian] by Plotnikov MB1, Aliev OI, Vasil'ev AS, Maslov MIu, Dmitruk SE, Krasnov EA.(PubMed)
(1213) Trans-resveratrol alone and hydroxystilbenes of rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.) root reduce liver damage induced by chronic ethanol administration: a comparative study in mice by Raal A1, Pokk P, Arend A, Aunapuu M, Jõgi J, Okva K, Püssa T.(PubMed)
(1214) The selective effect of N-feruloylserotonins isolated from Leuzea carthamoides on nociception and anxiety in rats by Yamamotová A1, Pometlová M, Harmatha J, Rasková H, Rokyta R.(PubMed)
(1215) Naturally appearing N-feruloylserotonin isomers suppress oxidative burst of human neutrophils at the protein kinase C level by Nosáĺ R1, Perečko T, Jančinová V, Drábiková K, Harmatha J, Sviteková K.(PubMed)
(1216) Suppression of oxidative burst in human neutrophils with the naturally occurring serotonin derivative isomer from Leuzea carthamoides by Nosal R1, Perecko T, Jancinova V, Drabikova K, Harmatha J, Svitekova K.(PubMed)

Schisandra (Wu Wei Zi)

Schisandra also is known as Wu Wei Zi, a twining shrub living its life by climbing on other vegetation, belongings to the family Schisandraceae, native to Asia and North America, The warm, sweet, bitter, sour, acrid, salty herb has been used in tradional Chinese medicine as antioxidant(1218)(1219), anti stress(1220)(1221), anti microbial(1224)(1225)(1226) agent and to improve metabolism(1227)(1228), enhance central nervous system(1229)(1230)(1233), treat hypertension(1231)(1232) and hypotension during exhaustion of circulatory function(1217), coughing(1234)(12135), insomnia(1237), premenstrual syndrome (PMS)(1239), menopausal symptoms(1240), depression(1233), irritability(1233), erectile dysfunction (ED)(1238), lower cholesterol(1241) and regulate blood glucose(1233), improve  memory(1222)(1223), etc.
by promoting function of lung and kidney channels(1217).

1. Schizandrin
2. Deoxyschisandrin
3. Gamma-schisandrin
4. Schisandrol
5. Pseudo-gamma-schisandrin
6. Schizandrate B
7. Gomisin A, B, C, F, G
8. Angeloylgomisin H
9. Tigloylgomisin H
10. Benzoylgomisin H
11. Epigomisin O
12. Malic acid
13. Citric acid
14. Tartaric acid
15. Succinic acid
16. A-pinene
17. Camphene
18. B-pinene
19. Byrcene
20. A-terpinene
21. Limonene
22. G-terpinene
23. P-cymene
24. Etc.

In chronic psychological stress male rat model, schisandra protect against stress induced complications such as carbohydrate metabolism(1227) and neurosis, psychogenic depression, astheno-depressive states, schizophrenia and alcoholism disorders(1233) and improved mental performance(1233).through its reduction of the levels of corticosterone (CORT) and glucose and protect the structure of the adrenal cortex(1227).
In physiological stress, the herbal medicine also exerted its stress-protective effect against a broad spectrum of harmful factors including heat shock, skin burn, cooling, frostbite, immobilisation, swimming under load in an atmosphere with decreased air pressure, aseptic inflammation, irradiation, and heavy metal intoxication(1233).
In oxidative stress induced damage heart(1242) tissues in animal models, schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis attenuated cardiotoxicity via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects(1242). In oxidative stress induced liver damage, oral administration of Schisandra Lignans Extract (SLE)(1243)(1244) or triterpenoid(1245) a chemical constituent from Schisandra chinensis significantly reduced liver damage(1243)(1244)(1245) in experimental animal model, through its effects of balance of oxidation and reduction in cells(1243) or upregulating cell cycle progression(1244) and anti tumor antigen(1244), or ameliorating oxidative stress(1245).

(1217) Wu Wei Zi(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1218) Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis pollen extract on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice by Cheng N1, Ren N, Gao H, Lei X, Zheng J, Cao W.(PubMed)
(1219) Schizandrin, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis, ameliorates Aβ1-42-induced memory impairment in mice by Hu D1, Cao Y, He R, Han N, Liu Z, Miao L, Yin J.(PubMed)
(1220) Schisantherin A recovers Aβ-induced neurodegeneration with cognitive decline in mice by Li X1, Zhao X1, Xu X1, Mao X1, Liu Z1, Li H1, Guo L1, Bi K2, Jia Y3.(PubMed)
(1221) Schisandrin B prevents doxorubicin induced cardiac dysfunction by modulation of DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation through inhibition of MAPK/p53 signaling by Thandavarayan RA1, Giridharan VV2, Arumugam S3, Suzuki K4, Ko KM5, Krishnamurthy P6, Watanabe K3, Konishi T7.(PubMed)
(1222) Schizandrin, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis, ameliorates Aβ1-42-induced memory impairment in mice by Hu D1, Cao Y, He R, Han N, Liu Z, Miao L, Yin J.(PubMed)
(1223) Deoxyschizandrin isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis ameliorates Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced memory impairment in mice by Hu D1, Li C, Han N, Miao L, Wang D, Liu Z, Wang H, Yin J.(PubMed)
(1224) A comparison of the anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of extracts from commonly used medicinal plants by Snowden R1, Harrington H, Morrill K, Jeane L, Garrity J, Orian M, Lopez E, Rezaie S, Hassberger K, Familoni D, Moore J, Virdee K, Albornoz-Sanchez L, Walker M, Cavins J, Russell T, Guse E, Reker M, Tschudy O, Wolf J, True T, Ukaegbu O, Ahaghotu E, Jones A, Polanco S, Rochon Y, Waters R, Langland J.(PubMed)
(1225) Anti-HIV-1 activity of lignans from the fruits of Schisandra rubriflora by Xiao WL1, Wang RR, Zhao W, Tian RR, Shang SZ, Yang LM, Yang JH, Pu JX, Zheng YT, Sun HD.(PubMed)
(1226) Compositions and biological activities of essential oils of Kadsura longepedunculata and Schisandra sphenanthera by Song L1, Ding JY, Tang C, Yin CH.(PubMed)
(1227) [Effects of schisandra on the function of the pituitary-adrenal cortex, gonadal axis and carbohydrate metabolism in rats undergoing experimental chronic psychological stress, navigation and strenuous exercise].[Article in Chinese] by Sun LJ1, Wang GH, Wu B, Wang J, Wang Q, Hu LP, Shao JQ, Wang YT, Li J, Gu P, Lu B.(PubMed)
(1228) In vivo to in vitro effects of six bioactive lignans of Wuzhi tablet (Schisandra sphenanthera extract) on the CYP3A/P-glycoprotein-mediated absorption and metabolism of tacrolimus by Qin XL1, Chen X, Wang Y, Xue XP, Wang Y, Li JL, Wang XD, Zhong GP, Wang CX, Yang H, Huang M, Bi HC.(PubMed)
(1229) The effects of lignan-riched extract of Shisandra chinensis on amyloid-β-induced cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse by Jeong EJ1, Lee HK, Lee KY, Jeon BJ, Kim DH, Park JH, Song JH, Huh J, Lee JH, Sung SH.(PubMed)
(1230) Schisandrin B exerts anti-neuroinflammatory activity by inhibiting the Toll-like receptor 4-dependent MyD88/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia by Zeng KW1, Zhang T, Fu H, Liu GX, Wang XM.(PubMed)
(1231) Preventive effect of gomisin J from Schisandra chinensis on angiotensin II-induced hypertension via an increased nitric oxide bioavailability by Ye BH1, Lee SJ1, Choi YW2, Park SY1, Kim CD1.(PubMed)
(1232) Antihypertensive effect of gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis on angiotensin II-induced hypertension via preservation of nitric oxide bioavailability by Young Park J1, Wook Yun J, Whan Choi Y, Ung Bae J, Won Seo K, Jin Lee S, Youn Park S, Whan Hong K, Kim CD.(PubMed)
(1233) Pharmacology of Schisandra chinensis Bail.: an overview of Russian research and uses in medicine by Panossian A1, Wikman G.(PubMed)
(1234) Effects of Schisandra chinensis extracts on cough and pulmonary inflammation in a cough hypersensitivity guinea pig model induced by cigarette smoke exposure by Zhong S1, Nie YC1, Gan ZY1, Liu XD1, Fang ZF1, Zhong BN1, Tian J1, Huang CQ1, Lai KF2, Zhong NS1.(PubMed)
(1235) Effects of the Schisandra fructus water extract on cytokine release from a human mast cell line. by Kang OH1, Chae HS, Choi JH, Choi HJ, Park PS, Cho SH, Lee GH, So HY, Choo YK, Kweon OH, Kwon DY.(PubMed)
(1236) [Effects of extracts from ziziphi spinosae semen and schisandrae chinensis fructus on amino acid neurotransmitter in rats with insomnia induced by PCPA].[Article in Chinese] by Gao JR, Ji WB, Jiang H, Chen JF.(PubMed)
(1237) Gomisin N isolated from Schisandra chinensis augments pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the modification of the serotonergic and GABAergic system by Zhang C1, Mao X1, Zhao X1, Liu Z1, Liu B1, Li H1, Bi K2, Jia Y3.(PubMed)
(1238) Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis by Chan SW1.(PubMed)
(1239) Herbal composition for promoting hormonal balance in women and methods of using same US 6242012 B1
(1240) The mechanism of vasorelaxation induced by Schisandra chinensis extract in rat thoracic aorta by Park JY1, Shin HK, Lee YJ, Choi YW, Bae SS, Kim CD.(PubMed)
(1241) Shengmai San reduces hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet by Yao HT1, Chang YW, Chen CT, Chiang MT, Chang L, Yeh TK.(PubMed)
(1242) Schisandrin B prevents doxorubicin induced cardiac dysfunction by modulation of DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation through inhibition of MAPK/p53 signaling by Thandavarayan RA1, Giridharan VV2, Arumugam S3, Suzuki K4, Ko KM5, Krishnamurthy P6, Watanabe K3, Konishi T7.(PubMed)
(1243) Schisandra Lignans Was Related with Its Antioxidative Actions in Liver Cells by Pu HJ1, Cao YF, He RR, Zhao ZL, Song JH, Jiang B, Huang T, Tang SH, Lu JM, Kurihara H.(PubMed)
(1244) Therapeutic efficacy of Wuzhi tablet (Schisandra sphenanthera Extract) on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through a mechanism distinct from N-acetylcysteine by Fan X1, Chen P1, Jiang Y1, Wang Y1, Tan H1, Zeng H1, Wang Y1, Qu A1, Gonzalez FJ1, Huang M1, Bi H2.(PubMed)
(1245) Effects of triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats by Li B1, Zhu L, Wu T, Zhang J, Jiao X, Liu X, Wang Y, Meng X.(PubMed)

the dry regions of India, northern Africa, and the Middle East - See more at:
the dry regions of India, northern Africa, and the Middle East - See more at:
the dry regions of India, northern Africa, and the Middle East - See more at:, used in Ayurvedic medicine for applied externally to treat tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and ulcers