Monday, 28 November 2016

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia - Free radical causes of Parkinson's disease

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

                           Causes of dementia

B. Free radical causes of dementia
B.2. Parkinson's disease
1. Free radicals and Parkinson's disease
Patients with Parkinson's disease have low levels of polyunsaturated fat in the substania nigra(44)(45). Also patients with the disease found to contain waste pigments of lipofusion(46) and other polymers in the neurons(47) where dopamine is most active.

2. Aging and Parkinson's disease
According to Julius-Maximilians-University, physiological aging and OS-dependent aggregation of proteins, accompanied with environment toxins(49) are found to associate to the progression of the disease(48).

3. Antioxidants and Parkinson's disease
Antioxidants play an vital role for patients with Parkinson's disease.
a. Superoxide dismutase
Researcher found that the progression of the disease may be associated with the decrease levels of superoxide dismutase, a antioxidant enzyme(50). According to University of Thessaloniki, patients with advanced Parkinson' diseases showed a statistically significant decrease of SOD activity in whole blood and in red blood cells(51).

b. NADH ubiquinone reductase
Levels of NADH ubiquinone reductase is decreased in the substania

nigra(52) in patients with PD, causing neurons apoptosis, but this can be treated with antioxidants Acetyl-L-carnitine (53) and alpha lipoic acid(54).

c. Uric acid
People with a high blood level of the natural antioxidant uric acid have a lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease(55) than do people with lower levels(56), but high levels of uric acid increases the risk of kidney diseases(57) and gout(58).

d. Glutathione
Glutathoine showed to deactivate the harmful product HNE of lipid peroxidation(59).

f. Etc.

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(44) Small Amounts of Isotope-reinforced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Suppress Lipid Autoxidation by Shauna Hill,a Connor R. Lamberson,b Libin Xu,b Randy To,a Hui S. Tsui,a Vadim V. Shmanai,c Andrei V. Bekish,dAgape M. Awad,a Beth N. Marbois,a Charles R. Cantor,e,f Ned A. Porter,b Catherine F. Clarke,a,* and Mikhail S. Shchepinovf,*(PubMed)
(45) Isotopic reinforcement of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids diminishes nigrostriatal degeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease by Mikhail S. Shchepinova, , Vivian P. Choub, e, , Erik Pollockc, , J. William Langstonb, , Charles R. Cantora, d, , Robert J. Molinaria, , Amy B. Manning-Boğb, e,(ScienceDirect)
(46) Altered lipofuscin pigmentation in the basal nucleus (Meynert) in Parkinson's disease byUlfig N1.(PubMed)

(47) Changes within the basal nucleus in Parkinson's disease by Ulfig N1, Braak E, Braak H.(PubMed)
(48) Free radicals in Parkinson's disease by Koutsilieri E1, Scheller C, Grünblatt E, Nara K, Li J, Riederer P.(PubMed)
(49) Considerations on the role of environmental toxins in idiopathic Parkinson's disease pathophysiology by Pan-Montojo F1, Reichmann H2.(PubMed)
(50) Superoxide dismutase overexpression protects dopaminergic neurons in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease by Botella JA1, Bayersdorfer F, Schneuwly S.(PubMed)
(51) Superoxide dismutase activity in early and advanced Parkinson's disease by Bostantjopoulou S1, Kyriazis G, Katsarou Z, Kiosseoglou G, Kazis A, Mentenopoulos G.(PubMed)
(52) Quercetin up-regulates mitochondrial complex-I activity to protect against programmed cell death in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease in rats by Karuppagounder SS1, Madathil SK, Pandey M, Haobam R, Rajamma U, Mohanakumar KP.(PubMed)
(53) Behavioral and neurochemical effects of alpha-lipoic Acid in the model of Parkinson's disease induced by unilateral stereotaxic injection of 6-ohda in rat by de Araújo DP1, De Sousa CN, Araújo PV, Menezes CE, Sousa Rodrigues FT, Escudeiro SS, Lima NB, Patrocínio MC, Aguiar LM, Viana GS, Vasconcelos SM.(PubMed)
(54) Acetyl-L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid affect rotenone-induced damage in nigral dopaminergic neurons of rat brain, implication for Parkinson's disease therapy by Zaitone SA1, Abo-Elmatty DM, Shaalan AA.(PubMed)
(55) Association of serum uric acid levels with the progression of Parkinson's disease in Chinese patients by Sun CC1, Luo FF, Wei L, Lei M, Li GF, Liu ZL, LE WD, Xu PY.(PubMed)
(56) Uric acid in Parkinson's disease by Schlesinger I1, Schlesinger N.(PubMed)
(57) Potential role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, kidney injury, and cardiovascular diseases: is it time for reappraisal? by Soltani Z1, Rasheed K, Kapusta DR, Reisin E.(PubMed)
(58) Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. by Martinon F1, Pétrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J.(PubMed)
(59) Lipid mediator interplay: resolvin D1 attenuates inflammation evoked by glutathione-conjugated lipid peroxidation products. by Filep JG1.(PubMed)

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