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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.
Free radical causes of dementia
B.1. Alzheimer’s disease
1. Free radical and Alzheimer’s disease
Free radicals causes of Alzheimer’s disease is well defined in many researches(34). Oxidative stress-induced injury involved the selective modification of different intracellular proteins may lead to the neurofibrillary degeneration of neurons in the brain(34a)(34b).
2. Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s disease
a. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Change of brain aging in DHA metabolism, was found in patients with Alzheimer's disease(34c)(34d). DHA, a naturally occurring component found in every cell membrane with ability to increase phosphatidylserine(35)(35a) is important in decreased production of proinflammatory omega-6 eicosanoids causes of Alzheimer's disease(35b) and in improved the memory of animals with Alzheimer's disease by suppressing oxidative damage in the brain(41).
b. Vitamin E
Vitamin E reduced generalized inflammation, may slow the decline of mental and physical abilities in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the long term(36). Also vitamin E inhibited cells damage and cells death caused by beta-amyloid(36a)(36b), which is toxic to brain cells(36c).
Patients who had Alzheimer’s disease taken100 milligrams per day (mg/day) of phosphatidylserine scored significantly better on standardized memory tests at the end of the 12-week trial period than patients without(37)(40).
Antioxidant are found at much lower levels for patients with Alzheimer’s disease(38), such as serum of vitamin A, C, E, zinc and transfferin. Carotenoids are fat-soluble antioxidants that may protect polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as n-3 fatty acids from oxidation(39)
e. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors
Alzheimer’s disease patients showed to exhibit the significant loss of muscarinic cholinergic receptors neurons(42) causes of reduced volume of neural transmission that can lead to loss of memory(43).
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(34) Possible causes of Alzheimer's disease: amyloid fragments, free radicals, and calcium homeostasis by Hölscher C1.(PubMed)
(34a) PROTEIN OXIDATION IN THE BRAIN IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE M. Y. AKSENOV,a,d* M. V. AKSENOVA,a,b D. A. BUTTERFIELD,a,c J. W. GEDDESa,d and W. R. MARKESBERYa,b a Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, US.(Pergamon)
(34b) Interactions between β-amyloid and central cholinergic neurons: implications for Alzheimer's disease by Satyabrata Kar, Stephen P.M. Slowikowski, David Westaway, and Howard T.J. Mount(PubMed)
(34c) The Impact of Cholesterol, DHA, and Sphingolipids on Alzheimer's Disease by Marcus O. W. Grimm, Valeri e C. Zimmer, 1 Johannes Lehmann, Heike S. Grimm, and Tobias Hartmann (PubMed)
(34d) DHA Improves Cognition and Prevents Dysfunction of Entorhinal Cortex Neurons in 3xTg-AD Mice Dany Arsenault,1,2 Carl Julien,1,2 Cyntia Tremblay,2 and Frédéric Calon1,2,(PubMed)
(35) Administration of DHA-PS to aged mice was suitable for increasing hippocampal PS and DHA ratio by Ohkubo T1, Tanaka Y.(PubMed)
(35a) Neuronal specific increase of phosphatidylserine by docosahexaenoic acid.by Guo M1, Stockert L, Akbar M, Kim HY.(PubMed)
(35b) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential fatty acid for the proper functioning of neuronal cells: their role in mood disorders By Alfonso Valenzuela B. ( University of Chile)
(36) Vitamin E for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment by Farina N1, Isaac MG, Clark AR, Rusted J, Tabet N.(PubMed)
(36a)Inflammatory mediator and beta-amyloid (25-35)-induced ceramide generation and iNOS expression are inhibited by vitamin E by Ayasolla K1, Khan M, Singh AK, Singh I.(PubMed)
(36b) Vitamin E but not 17beta-estradiol protects against vascular toxicity induced by beta-amyloid wild type and the Dutch amyloid variant by Muñoz FJ1, Opazo C, Gil-Gómez G, Tapia G, Fernández V, Valverde MA, Inestrosa NC.(PubMed)
(36c) Parkin protects against mitochondrial toxins and beta-amyloid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells by Rosen KM1, Veereshwarayya V, Moussa CE, Fu Q, Goldberg MS, Schlossmacher MG, Shen J, Querfurth HW.(PubMed)
(37) Soybean-Derived Phosphatidylserine Improves Memory Function of the Elderly Japanese Subjects with Memory Complaints by Akito Kato-Kataoka,1,* Masashi Sakai,1 Rika Ebina,1 Chiaki Nonaka,2 Tsuguyoshi Asano,3 and Takashi Miyamori4(PubMed)
(38) Oxidative stress involving changes in Nrf2 and ER stress in early stages of Alzheimer's disease by Mota SI1, Costa RO1, Ferreira IL1, Santana I2, Caldeira GL3, Padovano C3, Fonseca AC3, Baldeiras I4, Cunha C5, Letra L5, Oliveira CR4, Pereira CM6, Rego AC7.(PubMed)
(39) Nutritional biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease: the association between carotenoids, n-3 fatty acids, and dementia severity by Wang W1, Shinto L, Connor WE, Quinn JF.(PubMed)
(40) The effect of soybean-derived phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance in elderly with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study by Yael Richter, Yael Herzog, Yael Lifshitz, Rami Hayun, and Sigalit Zchut(PubMed)
(41) Action of long-chain fatty acids on protein kinase C activity: comparison of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.by Holian O1, Nelson R.(PubMed)
(42) Interactions between β-amyloid and central cholinergic neurons: implications for Alzheimer's disease by Satyabrata Kar, Stephen P.M. Slowikowski, David Westaway, and Howard T.J. Mount(PubMed)
(43) Chapter 12Memory Impairments Associated with Stress and Aging by Carmen Sandi.(PubMed)