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Monday, 21 November 2016

Antioxidants: The immune system - Types of free radicals utilized by Immune system

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Human aging is a biological process, no one can stop, but delay it. It is possible that one person has a physiological younger than his or her biological if one engages in healthy living life style and eating healthily by increasing the intake of good healthy food such as whole grain, fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes, etc. and reducing the consumption of harmful foods, such as saturated fat, trans fat, artificial ingredients, etc.
                                         The immune system

An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens, including bacteria, virus, parasites, etc. and tumor cells, including irregular cells growth, cancer cells to keep us healthy. In most cases, the immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. But sometimes problems with the immune system can lead to illness and infection.

Types of free radicals utilized by Immune system

Free Radicals play an important role in the function of the Immune System. The immune systen produce free radicals to kill foreign microbes, but the production of free radical sometime can be excessive, leading to formation of a large number of free radicals that stimulate the formation of more free radicals, leading to even more damage, until they are brought to stop.

a. Nitric oxideNitric oxide is also generated by phagocytes of immune system as part of the human immune response. It is produced as free radicals and toxic to bacteria, that helps the immune system in regulating the armamentarium of phagocytes that play a role in inflammation.
Nitric oxide can contribute to reperfusion injury if excessive amount produced during reperfusion and reacts with superoxide to produce the damaging oxidant peroxynitrite.

b. Superoxide
Superoxide is a compound that possesses the superoxide anion with the chemical formula O2−. It is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms produced in large quantities by the enzyme NADPH oxidase.
If over produce, superoxide may contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases , such as radiation poisoning and hyperoxic injury and aging as aresult of oxidation.

c. Neutrophils
Neutrophils, the phagocytes can internalize and kill microbes, but each phagocytic event causes the formation of a phagosome into which reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrolytic enzymes are secreted, leading to respiratory burst, resulting in activating the enzyme NADPH oxidase, which produces large quantities of superoxide.

d. Chain reaction
Since free radicals are caused by the body’s own natural processes by stealing oxygen electron from other cell, its chain effect result in production of even more free radicals. These aditional free radicals continue until they are stopped, leading to toxins, radiation, etc. that weakens the immune system.

e. Etc.