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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.
1. Alzheimer's disease
2. Absence of acetylcholine
If the nerves located in front of the brain perish(5), caused by diminished quality of acetylcholine due long term alcohol abused may result of cognitive dysfunction(6) causes of language difficulty, memory loss, concentration problem, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors(8),reduced moblile skills because of lacking reaction in muscular activity and refection(7).
3. Dementia due to long-term alcohol abuse
Dementia is common in patients with alcoholism(9). Most classic is the Korsakoff's dementia resulted in extremely poor short term memory(10) and often associated with the memory losses of confabulations due to diminished processing resources and/or an encoding or retrieval deficit(11).
4. Multi-infarct dementia
Also known as vascular dementia, is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease in older adults caused by different mechanisms all results in vascular lesions(12) of the brain(13).
5. Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease
Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, progressive condition, causes of cognitive deficits due to the interruption of frontal-subcortical loops that facilitate cognition and parallel the motor loop(15)(16) due to loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine (DA) neurons(14).
6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
People who have eaten contaminated beef(18) for many years may be infected without even knowing it. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a quickly progressing and fatal disease consisted of dementia(19), muscle abnormal functions(17).
7. Subdural hematoma
It is the accumulation of blood beneath the outer cover of the brain resulted from the rupture of blood vessel(20)(21). Subdural hemorrhages may increase intracranial pressure(22), causing compression and damage to delicate brain tissue. Acute subdural hematoma has a high mortality rate(23).
Other types of dementia include metabolic disorders, dementia due to long-term substance abuse, hypothyroidism, and hyperethyroidism.
(1) Alzheimer's disease (Wikipedia)
(2) Understanding dementia in the sociocultural context: a review by Cipriani G1, Borin G2.(PubMed)
(3) What is normal in normal aging? Effects of aging, amyloid and Alzheimer's disease on the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus by Fjell AM1, McEvoy L2, Holland D3, Dale AM4, Walhovd KB5; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.(PubMed)
(4) Does degree of gyrification underlie the phenotypic and genetic associations between cortical surface area and cognitive ability? by Docherty AR1, Hagler DJ Jr2, Panizzon MS3, Neale MC4, Eyler LT5, Fennema-Notestine C6, Franz CE3, Jak A7, Lyons MJ8, Rinker DA9, Thompson WK10, Tsuang MT11, Dale AM12, Kremen WS13.(PubMed)
(5) Acetylcholine facilitates recovery of episodic memory after brain damage by Croxson PL1, Browning PG, Gaffan D, Baxter MG.(PubMed)
(6) Postsynaptic activity reverses the sign of the acetylcholine-induced long-term plasticity of GABAA inhibition by Domínguez S1, Fernández de Sevilla D2, Buño W3.(PubMed)
(7) Induction of dystrophin-associated proteins together with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by denervation in the absence of dystrophin in skeletal muscles of mdx mice by Mitsui T1, Kawai H, Kawajiri M, Kunishige M, Aki K, Saito S.(PubMed)
(8) Mice lacking the β4 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor show memory deficits, altered anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and diminished nicotine-induced analgesia by Semenova S1, Contet C, Roberts AJ, Markou A.(PubMed)
(9) Magnetic resonance imaging in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome: evidence for an association with alcoholic dementia by Emsley R1, Smith R, Roberts M, Kapnias S, Pieters H, Maritz S.(PubMed)
(10) Rates of forgetting in Alzheimer-type dementia and Korsakoff's syndrome by Kopelman MD.(PubMed)
(11) Non-verbal, short-term forgetting in the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and Alzheimer-type dementia by Kopelman MD1.(PubMed)
(12) Vascular dementia: different forms of vessel disorders contribute to the development of dementia in the elderly brain by Thal DR1, Grinberg LT, Attems J.(PubMed)
(13) Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment-a critical update by Jellinger KA1.(PubMed)
(14) What causes the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease? by Surmeier DJ1, Guzman JN, Sanchez-Padilla J, Goldberg JA.(PubMed)
(15) Frontal-subcortical circuitry and behavior Circuitos fronto-subcorticales y conducta Circuits fronto-sous-corticaux et comportement, Raphael M. Bonelli, MD; DMedSc*
Raphael M. Bonelli, Department of Psychiatry, Graz Medical University, Graz, Austria ;
Jeffrey L. Cummings, MD,
Jeffrey L. Cummings, Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif, USA;(PubMed)
(16) The Frontal Lobes and Neuropsychiatric Illness, edited by Stephen P. Salloway, Paul F. Malloy, James D. Duffy
(17) [A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with arm levitation as an initial symptom].
[Article in Japanese] by Kamogawa K1, Ninomiya S, Okuda S, Matsumoto Y, Tomita H, Okamoto K, Okuda B.(PubMed)
(18) Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: how safe is eating beef? by Roma AA1, Prayson RA.(PubMed)
(19) Immune responses in rapidly progressive dementia: a comparative study of neuroinflammatory markers in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis by Stoeck K, Schmitz M, Ebert E, Schmidt C, Zerr I.(PubMed)
(20) Acute subdural hematoma from bridging vein rupture: a potential mechanism for growth by
Miller JD1, Nader R.(PubMed)
(21) Association of subdural hematoma with increased mortality in lobar intracerebral hemorrhage by
Patel PV1, FitzMaurice E, Nandigam RN, Auluck P, Viswanathan A, Goldstein JN, Rosand J, Greenberg SM, Smith EE.(PubMed)
(22) Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma: an unusual form of cerebrovacular accident by Naama O1, Belhachmi A, Ziadi T, Boulahroud O, Abad Elasri C, Elmostarchid B, Boucetta M.(PubMed)
(23) Fatal deterioration of delayed acute subdural hematoma after mild traumatic brain injury: two cases with brief review by Chen S1, Xu C, Yuan L, Tian H, Cao H, Guo Y.(PubMed)