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Wednesday, 8 March 2017

The Research and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Osteoarthritis preventive Antioxidants

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoarthritis 


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).


The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).

                                    The preventive Antioxidants

1. Immune system and functioning (Free radical scavengers)
Free Radicals play an important role in the function of the Immune System. The immune system produces free radicals to kill foreign microbes(176)(177), but the production of free radical sometime can be excessive, leading to formation of a large number of free radicals(178)(179). The domino effects have shown to induce many chronic illness, such as cancers(179)
a. Vitamin A
vitamin A plays an essential roles in enhancing a broad range of immune processes, including white blood cells activation and proliferation(180)(181)of T-helper-cell differentiation, the production of specific antibody in regulation of the immune response(182).
b. Vitamin C
Researchers found that vitamin C raised the concentration in the blood of total immunoglobulin(183) in promotion of the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens(184).
c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E not only increased both cell-dividing and IL-producing capacities of naive T cells(185) but also enhanced the immune functions(186) in association with significant improvement in resistance to influenza infection(187).
d. Zinc
Zinc, having a regulatory role in the immune system,(189) as a antioxidant is essential mineral improved immune system by enhancing the proper function of T and B cells(188) which belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, in fighting against damaging free radicals(190).

2. Antioxidants and osteoarthritis
Diet included vitamin E significantly reduce the levels of inflammation by analyzing the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the blood serum(193). According to the study of "Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis", vitamins A, C, and E in combination; ginger; turmeric; or Zyflamend (New Chapter, Brattleboro, Vermont) have found to be effective for the treatment of OA(191). According to Dr. Christensen R, and DR. Bliddal H. food supplement containing fish oils, urtica dioica, zinc, and vitamin E (Phytalgic) may also have a very large clinical effect, for treatment of OA(192)

b. Glucosamine
Glucosamine, a compound of the simple sugar glucose and the amino acid glutamine, is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans(194), a major component of joint cartilage(195). Treatment of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, collagen hydrolysate, or nutrients, such as antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids showed to prevent cartilage degeneration and treat arthritis, according to study(195).

c. DLPA (dl- phenylalanine)
DLPA, a mixture of D-Phenylalanine and L-Phenylalanine, is a nutritional supplement amino acid(196). showed effectively in treatment for OA (197) as well as reducing arthritis pain(198) and joint inflammation(198) in many patients.

d. Methylsulfonylmethane, also known DMSO2 is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO2
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Fifty men and women, 40-76 years of age with knee OA pain enrolled in an outpatient medical center. MSM (3g twice a day) improved symptoms of pain and physical function during the short intervention without major adverse events, after 12 weeks(199)(200)


3. Etc.





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References

(176) Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health by Lien Ai Pham-Huy,1 Hua He,2 and Chuong Pham-Huy3(PMC)
(177) Superoxide Anion and Its Functions(Beta Forces)
(178) Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease by Valko M1, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J.(PubMed)
(179) Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer by Valko M1, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M.(PubMed)
(180) Vitamin A, immunity, and infection by Semba RD1.(PubMed)
(181) Vitamin A as an immunomodulating agent by Rumore MM1.(PubMed)
(182) The effect of newborn vitamin A supplementation on infant immune functions: trial design, interventions, and baseline data by Ahmad SM1, Raqib R2, Qadri F3, Stephensen CB4(PubMed)
(183) Effect of dietary vitamin C on the growth performance and innate immunity of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum) by Zhou Q1, Wang L, Wang H, Xie F, Wang T.(PubMed)
(184) The treatment of poliomyelitis and other virus diseases with vitamin C by KLENNER FR.(PubMed)
(185) Vitamin E-enhanced IL-2 production in old mice: naive but not memory T cells show increased cell division cycling and IL-2-producing capacity by Adolfsson O1, Huber BT, Meydani SN.(PubMed)
(186) Vitamin E and immune response in the aged: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. by Meydani SN1, Han SN, Wu D.(PubMed)
(187) Vitamin E and infectious diseases in the aged by Han SN1, Meydani SN.(PubMed)
(188) Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation by Bonaventura P1, Benedetti G1, Albarède F2, Miossec P3.(PubMed)
(189) Zinc homeostasis and immunosenescence by Maywald M1, Rink L2.(PubMed)
(190) Dietary zinc deficiency induced-changes in the activity of enzymes and the levels of free radicals, lipids and protein electrophoretic behavior in growing rats by Yousef MI1, El-Hendy HA, El-Demerdash FM, Elagamy EI.(PubMed)
(191) Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis by Rosenbaum CC1, O'Mathúna DP, Chavez M, Shields K.(PubMed)
(192) Is Phytalgic(R) a goldmine for osteoarthritis patients or is there something fishy about this nutraceutical? A summary of findings and risk-of-bias assessment by Christensen R, Bliddal H.(PubMed)
(193) Vitamin E has a dual effect of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities in acetic acid–induced ulcerative colitis in rat by Gulgun Tahan, MD,*† Erman Aytac, MD,* Huseyin Aytekin, MD,‡ Feyza Gunduz, MD,† Gulen Dogusoy, MD,§ Seval Aydin, MD,¶ Veysel Tahan, MD,** and Hafize Uzun, MD(PMC)
(194) Glucosamine inhibits the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains on vascular smooth muscle cell proteoglycans by depletion of ATP by Little PJ1, Drennon KD, Tannock LR.(PubMed)
(195) Effects of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate on Cartilage Metabolism in OA: Outlook on Other Nutrient Partners Especially Omega-3 Fatty Acid by Jörg Jerosch(PubMed)
(196) NON-PHYSIOLOGICAL AMINO ACID (NPAA) THERAPY TARGETING BRAIN PHENYLALANINE REDUCTION: PILOT STUDIES IN PAHENU2 MIC by Kara R. Vogel,1 Erland Arning,2 Brandi L. Wasek,2 Teodoro Bottiglieri,2 and K. Michael Gibson1,(PubMed)
(197) DLPA (D, L Phenylalanine)(Whole health Chicago)
(198) PHENYLALANINE(WebMD)
(199) Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. by Kim LS1, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF.(PubMed)
(200) Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study by Debbi EM1, Agar G, Fichman G, Ziv YB, Kardosh R, Halperin N, Elbaz A, Beer Y, Debi R.(PubMed)