Tuesday, 7 March 2017

The Research and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Osteoarthritis preventive Diet

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).

The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).

                                    The  preventive Diet

The aims of the diet is to provide protection to avoid elevation of the inflammatory effects(139) in induced-degeneration causes of osteoarthritis(133)(134)
1. Green tea
Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), according to the College of Pharmacy, found abundantly in green tea showed to exhibit its anti anti-rheumatic activity in patients with joint diseases(140) through its antioxidant property(141).

2. Salmon
Salmon is the common name for Salmonidae, born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then travel thousands of miles in the deep sea cold water throughout their life cycle and within five years returning to the exacted location where they were born to reproduce and die.
a. Weight loss
Intake of salmon oil has shown to induce body weight loss in mice, according to the study by University of Washington(142). N3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-LCPUFA) enhanced body weight loss, at the end of the 1-month period in 16 children through deduction of insulin resistance(143).

b. Antioxidants
Megadoses of vitamin E, found in salmon oil exhibited pro-oxidative activity, through increased the anti-oxidative capacity of the liver(144).

c. Omega 3 fatty acids
Omega 3 fatty acids is necessary to maintain the ratio of good and bad cholesterol(145), thus reducing the risk of cholesterol inflammation(146)(148) cause of heart diseases (147) and osteoarthritis(133)(134).

d. Anti inflammation
Omega 3 fatty acids not only reduces the risk of inflammatory effects on our joints and improved blood flow(149), by regulating the migration of inflammatory cells(139), but also reduce the elevation of the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) causes of autoimmune diseases(150).

3. Walnut tree
Walnut tree, cultivated for its nut and kernel and for commercial purpose all over the world, is one of the Genus plant belong to the family Juglandaceae about 30–130 ft).
a. Antioxidant effects(151)(152)
Even-though walnuts consumption did not only significantly change the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy, well-nourished older adults through its polyphenols in inhibitiobn plasma and LDL oxidation(151) but chronic consumption, it improved postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status(152) through its antioxidant linoleic acid and pyridoxal phosphate in enhancing total plasma thiols(151).

b. Inflammation defense(153)
Intake of walnuts is shown to promote manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme located in mitochondria(154), is the key enzyme in protection of the energy-generating mitochondria from oxidative damage caused by free radicals(155).

c. Diabetes riskAdiponectin found abundantly in walnut-enriched meal plays an important causal role in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome(156). Diabetes in older adult is shown to associate increased risk of osteoarthritis(157).

4. Dulse
Dulse, commonly used in Ireland and Atlantic Canada both as foods and medicines, is a red seaweed of genus Palmaria, belong to Family Palmariaceae grown attached to rocks by a “holdfast” in the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific. Dulse is found in many health food stores or fish markets or can be ordered directly from local distributors.
a. Health benefits
Seaweeds, including dulse, showed to consist a important functional activities, such as antioxidant(158)(160)(161), antimutagenic(159)(162) and anticoagulant effect(160), antitumor activity(160), and modification of lipid metabolism(161).
b. Antioxidants
Dulse extracts showed to inhibit certain lipid peroxidations(162).
c. Weigh loss
As a rich source of fiber, dulse enhances the process of digestion, for making the stomach feeling fullness, thus reducing the risk of insulin cause of food craving(163).

5. Lime (Lemon)
Lime, a around shape with green to yellow in color and 3–6 cm in diameter, is a species of Citrus Aurantifolia, belongs to the family Rutaceae, native to Southeast Asia.
a. Antioxidant
Lime flower extract may contain high levels of antioxidant(164)(165) but lesser than the ethanol extract of cinnamon(166).
b. Vitamin C
Besides preventing the breaking off small vein cause of hardening of the vessel wall(167), vitamin C also improves the digestive system in maximum absorption of vital nutrients and plays an important role in enhancing immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals that cause muscle damage(168). According to the University of Limerick, prior supplementation with dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E may ameliorate muscle functional decrements subsequent to eccentric muscle contraction(169).

6. Dairy Products
Dairy products contain high amount of nutrients, it also has measure amount of vitamin D of which is necessary for the body in calcium absorption(170). Intake of dairy products per day, according to joint study including Université Libre de Bruxelles appears to be safe and may confer a favourable benefit with regard to bone health, such as osteoarthritis(172), rheumatoid arthritis(170).
In elderly Fracture risk, according to the Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, improved bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein such as Dairy products, yogurts are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss(171). Recommendation of consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day during childhood and adolescence, has shown to improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life(171).
In the observation of a significant dose-response relationship between baseline milk intake and adjusted mean decrease of JSW in women, researcher at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, showed that frequent milk consumption may be associated with reduced OA progression in women and delay in knee OA progression(173).

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(134) Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors by Khalid Rahman(PMC)
(135) New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate by Hae-Suk Kim,a Michael J. Quon,c and Jeong-a Kima,b(PMC)
(136) Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications by Singh BN1, Shankar S, Srivastava RK.(PubMed)
(137) Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis by Shen CL1, Smith BJ, Lo DF, Chyu MC, Dunn DM, Chen CH, Kwun IS.(PubMed)
(138) Green tea: a new option for the prevention or control of osteoarthritis by Katiyar SK, Raman C.(PubMed)

(139) Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are acutely increased by hyperglycemia in humans role of oxidative stress by K Esposito, F Nappo, R Marfella, G Giugliano, F Giugliano, M Ciotola(Circulation)
(140) Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate in arthritis: progress and promise by Ahmed S1.(PubMed)
(141) Preparation and antioxidant activity of green tea extract enriched in epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) by Hu J1, Zhou D, Chen Y.(PubMed)
(142) Genetically determined body weight loss in mice fed diets containing salmon oil by LeBoeuf RC1, Veldee MS.(PubMed)
(143) Supplementation of n3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synergistically decreases insulin resistance withweight loss of obese prepubertal and pubertal children by López-Alarcón M1, Martínez-Coronado A, Velarde-Castro O, Rendón-Macías E, Fernández J.(PubMed)
(144) Effects of megadoses of dietary vitamin E on the antioxidant status of rats fed lard or salmon oil by Flader D1, Brandsch C, Hirche F, Eder K.(PubMed)
(145) Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet by Kasbi Chadli F1, Nazih H, Krempf M, Nguyen P, Ouguerram K.(PubMed)
(146) Cholesterol, inflammation and innate immunity by Tall AR1, Yvan-Charvet L2.(PubMed)
(147) In vitro fatty acid enrichment of macrophages alters inflammatory response and net cholesterol accumulation by Wang S1, Wu D, Lamon-Fava S, Matthan NR, Honda KL, Lichtenstein AH.(PubMed)
(148) Uncoupling lipid metabolism from inflammation through fatty acid binding protein-dependent expression of UCP2. byXu H1, Hertzel AV1, Steen KA1, Wang Q2, Suttles J3, Bernlohr DA4.(PubMed)
(149) Low-dose aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids improve uterine artery blood flow velocity in women with recurrent miscarriage due to impaired uterine perfusion by Lazzarin N1, Vaquero E, Exacoustos C, Bertonotti E, Romanini ME, Arduini D.(PubMed)
(150) Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. by Simopoulos AP1.(PubMed)
(151) Chronic and acute effects of walnuts on antioxidant capacity and nutritional status in humans: a randomized, cross-over pilot study by McKay DL1, Chen CY, Yeum KJ, Matthan NR, Lichtenstein AH, Blumberg JB.(PubMed)
(152) Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals by Haddad EH1, Gaban-Chong N, Oda K, Sabaté J.(PubMed)
(153) Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men by Jiménez-Gómez Y1, López-Miranda J, Blanco-Colio LM, Marín C, Pérez-Martínez P, Ruano J, Paniagua JA, Rodríguez F, Egido J, Pérez-Jiménez F.(PubMed)
(154) manganese(The world healthier foods)
(155) The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in inflammation defense by Li C1, Zhou HM(PubMed)
(156) An acute intake of a walnut-enriched meal improves postprandial adiponectin response in healthy young adults by Lozano A1, Perez-Martinez P, Marin C, Tinahones FJ, Delgado-Lista J, Cruz-Teno C, Gomez-Luna P, Rodriguez-Cantalejo F, Perez-Jimenez F, Lopez-Miranda(PubMed)
(157) Links between osteoarthritis and diabetes: implications for management from a physical activity perspective by Piva SR1, Susko AM2, Khoja SS2, Josbeno DA2, Fitzgerald GK2, Toledo FG3.(PubMed)
(158) Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of three species of tropical seaweeds by Chia YY1, Kanthimathi MS2,3, Khoo KS4, Rajarajeswaran J5, Cheng HM6, Yap WS7.(PubMed)
(159) Brown seaweed fucoidan: biological activity and apoptosis, growth signaling mechanism in cancer by Senthilkumar K1, Manivasagan P, Venkatesan J, Kim SK.(PubMed)
(160) Anticoagulant, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Heterofucans from the Seaweed Dictyopteris delicatul by Kaline Dantas Magalhaes,1,2,† Leandro Silva Costa,1,3,† Gabriel Pereira Fidelis,1 Ruth Medeiros Oliveira,1 Leonardo Thiago Duarte Barreto Nobre,1 Nednaldo Dantas-Santos,1,2 Rafael Barros Gomes Camara,1 Ivan Rui Lopes Albuquerque,1,2 Sara Lima Cordeiro,1 Diego Araujo Sabry,1 Mariana Santana Santos Pereira Costa,1 Luciana Guimaraes Alves,1 and Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha1,2(PMC)
(161) [Nutritional evaluation and physiological effects of edible seaweeds].[Article in Spanish] by Jiménez-Escrig A1, Goñi Cambrodón I.(PubMed)
(162) Extracts from dulse (Palmaria palmata) are effective antioxidants and inhibitors of cell proliferation in vitro by Yuan YV1, Carrington MF, Walsh NA.(PubMed)
(164) Role of bilirubin as antioxidant in neonatal jaundice and effect of ethanolic extract of sweet lime peel on experimentally induced jaundice in rat by Nag N1, Halder S, Chaudhuri R, Adhikary S, Mazumder S.(PubMed)
(165) Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of tortillas obtained after lime-cooking extrusion process of whole pigmented mexican maize by Aguayo-Rojas J1, Mora-Rochín S, Cuevas-Rodríguez EO, Serna-Saldivar SO, Gutierrez-Uribe JA, Reyes-Moreno C, Milán-Carril(PubMed)
(166) Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of eleven edible plants by Boğa M1, Hacıbekiroğlu I, Kolak U.(PubMed)
(167) Aging Hearts and Arteries: A Scientific Quest, Chapter 4: Blood Vessels and Aging: The Rest of the Journey(NIH)
(168) Does antioxidant vitamin supplementation protect against muscle damage? by McGinley C1, Shafat A, Donnelly AE(PubMed)
(169) Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamins C and E on muscle function during and after eccentric contractions in humans by Shafat A1, Butler P, Jensen RL, Donnelly AE.(PubMed)
(170) Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs-A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases by Rozenberg S1, Body JJ2, Bruyère O3, Bergmann P4, Brandi ML5, Cooper C6,7, Devogelaer JP8, Gielen E9, Goemaere S10, Kaufman JM11, Rizzoli R12,Reginster JY13(PubMed)
(171) Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health by Rizzoli R1.(PubMed)
(172) Got osteoarthritis? Maybe milk can help by Sahni S1, McLean RR.(PubMed)
(173) Milk consumption and progression of medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative by Lu B1, Driban JB, Duryea J, McAlindon T, Lapane KL, Eaton CB(PubMed)

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