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Wednesday, 15 March 2017

The Research and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Osteoarthritis - Non Medical Treatments The Occupational Therapy

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoarthritis 


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).


The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).

          The Occupational Therapy 

Occupational Therapy 
According to the Canadian Association of Occupation Therapists, Occupational therapy is the form of treatment involved evaluating and improving a persons functional abilities of a specific age group or disability such as arthritis, developmental coordination disorder, mental illness, or spinal cord injury, etc...(251). But some research suggested that patient should be encouraged to change of lifestyle to achieve a optimal self-managing the effects and symptoms of OA(252).
Unfortunately, according to the University of Alberta, the implication for Rehabilitation Pain gasp has not been focused in training programs in occupational therapy education even it is a prevalent condition in all age groups(253). Some research in regarded to occupation therapy in treatment of hand exercise in osteoarthritis, insisted that high-quality studies are necessary to establish a strong and sound of evidences in concerning functional assessment and the effect of hand exercises in hand osteoarthritis(254).

In need, depending to the individual needs, including patients education and self-management programs. Weight loss may be necessary if the osteoarthritic patient is overweight(255); physical therapy may also be needed for muscle strengthening with aerobic conditioning(256)(257) and tai chi exercise(258) with improving pain and function in people with OA, depending to the disease severities(258), etc.


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References
(251) Occupational Therapy - As defined by the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists(Canadian Association of Occupation Therapists)
(252) Integrating lifestyle approaches into osteoarthritis care by Garver MJ1, Focht BC2, Taylor SJ3.(PubMed)
(253) Occupational therapists' pain knowledge: a national survey by Reyes AN1, Brown CA1.(PubMed)
(254) Occupational therapy-based and evidence-supported recommendations for assessment and exercises in handosteoarthritis by Kjeken I1(PubMed)
(255) Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss: evidence, hypotheses and horizons – a scoping review by H Bliddal,1 A R Leeds,2,3,4 and R Christensen1(PubMed)
(256) Strength cycle training: effects on muscular strength and aerobic conditioning. by Van Zant RS1, Bouillon LE.(PubMed)
(257) Effect of resistance training and aerobic conditioning on muscular strength and submaximal fitness for individuals with chronic heart failure: influence of age and gender. by Swank AM1, Funk DC, Manire JT, Allard AL, Denny DM.(PubMed)
(258) A review of the clinical evidence for exercise in osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. by Bennell KL1, Hinman RS.(PubMed)