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Tuesday, 14 March 2017

The Research and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Osteoarthritis Treatment in Conventional Medicine - The Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                Osteoarthritis 


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).


The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).

          The Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
a. The use of the medicine should be taken into account of in cost effectiveness, adverse event data and individual cardiovascular and gastrointestinal risks(242).
b. Side effects are not limit to
According to King’s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may cause(243)
b.1. A nonspecific colitis (in particular, fenemates), and many patients with collagenous colitis are taking NSAIDs.
b.2. Large intestinal ulcers, bleeding, and perforation
b.3. Relapse of classic inflammatory bowel disease
b.4. Serious complications of diverticular disease (fistula and perforation)
b.5. Small intestinal perforation, ulcers, and strictures requiring surgery
b.6. Specific biochemical and subcellular organelle damage(243).
The University of Sydney insisted that the drug may also cause enteropathy(244).


3. Narcotics
Narcotics are natural opioid drugs derived from the Asian poppy may provide relief from more severe osteoarthritis pain(245), with additive effect(246).
b. According to NIH, the side effects(247) are not limit to
b.1. Risk of dependence
b.2. Dizziness and drowsiness
b.3. Nausea and vomiting
b.4. Headache and fatigue
b.5. Others include
Yawning, insomnia, restlessness, mood swings, diarrhea(247)



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You Can Eliminate Osteoarthritis
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References
(231) Physical Activity and Arthritis Overview(CDC)
(232) Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength by Peeler J1, Christian M, Cooper J, Leiter J, MacDonald P.(PubMed)
(233) Lower body positive pressure: an emerging technology in the battle against knee osteoarthritis? by Takacs J1, Anderson JE, Leiter JR, MacDonald PB, Peeler JD.(PubMed)
(234) Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength by Peeler J1, Christian M, Cooper J, Leiter J, MacDonald P.(PubMed)
(235) Weight loss over 48 months is associated with reduced progression of cartilage T2 relaxation time values: data from the osteoarthritis initiative by Serebrakian AT1, Poulos T, Liebl H, Joseph GB, Lai A, Nevitt MC, Lynch JA, McCulloch CE, Link TM.(PubMed)
(236) Obesity versus osteoarthritis: beyond the mechanical overload.[Article in English, Portuguese] by Sartori-Cintra AR1, Aikawa P2, Cintra DE3.(PubMed)
(237) Effect of low-level laser therapy (904 nm) and static stretching in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a protocol of randomised controlled trial by Ferreira de Meneses SR1,2, Hunter DJ3, Young Docko E4, Pasqual Marques A5.(PubMed)
(238) The efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets (Ultracet®) as add-on and maintenance therapy in knee osteoarthritis pain inadequately controlled by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). by Park KS1, Choi JJ, Kim WU, Min JK, Park SH, Cho CS.(PubMed)
(239) Efficacy and safety of tramadol/acetaminophen tablets (Ultracet) as add-on therapy for osteoarthritis pain in subjects receiving a COX-2 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial by Emkey R1, Rosenthal N, Wu SC, Jordan D, Kamin M; CAPSS-114 Study Group.(PubMed)
(240) Effects of acetaminophen on morphine side-effects and consumption after major surgery: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Remy C1, Marret E, Bonnet F.(PubMed)
(241) Tylenol Side Effects Center(RXlist)
(242) Cost effectiveness of COX 2 selective inhibitors and traditional NSAIDs alone or in combination with a proton pump inhibitor for people with osteoarthritis(The BMJ)
(243) Side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the small and large intestine in humans by Bjarnason I1, Hayllar J, MacPherson AJ, Russell AS.(PubMed)
(244) Detection and prevention of NSAID-induced enteropathy by Davies NM1, Saleh JY, Skjodt NM.(PubMed)
(245) Patient preference and willingness to pay for knee osteoarthritis treatments. by Posnett J1, Dixit S2, Oppenheimer B2, Kili S3, Mehin N4.(PubMed)
(246) A model of additive effects of mixtures of narcotic chemicals by Shirazi MA1, Linder G.(PubMed)
(247) Pain medications - narcotics(NIH)