Sunday, 5 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia In TCM Herbal Medicine - Radix glycyrrhizae(Gan Cao)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

   TCM Herbal Medicine for Treatment of Dementia - Radix glycyrrhizae(Gan Cao)

According to the Unilever R&D Shanghai, and Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Dr. and the team of researchers, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in 3000 years' literary history, the top 5 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos(720), Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae have been used extensively for treatment of dementia(*).

Gan Cao, a sweet and neutral herb, also known as Licorice root, has been used in TCM as anti allergy(752), anti inflammation(751), anti ulcer(753), anti convulsion(754) agents and to treat stomach weakness(755), tired and lack of strength(756), enhance cardiac performance(757) and short of breath(758), cough with abundance of phlegm(751), etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing the function of all 12 channels.

1. Glycyrrhizic acid
2. 24-hydroxyglycyrrhetic acid
3. Licorice saponins A3
4. Licochalcone A
5. Licochalcone B
6. Licoflavone
7. Liquiritin
8. Liquiritigenin
9. Isoliquiritigenin
10. Ononins
11. 4′,7-dihydroxyflavone
12. Etc.

Gan Cao used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(719) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to their effectiveness of phytochemicals in ameliorated amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits(759). In senile dementia, Gan Cao exhibited its elicit memory-improving effects, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities(760).

1. In Alzheimer's disease (AD)
Vascular risk factors (VRF) has shown strong evidence in contribution to cognitive decline and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(763) and dementia(761). Sini Decoction, a TCM formula containing Gan Cao enhanced cardiac function through significant suppression of lipid peroxidation(765) of myocardial homogenate(764), via scavenge oxygen free radicals activity(764). According to Korea Food Research Institute, Gan Cao attenuated the Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) involved in the progression ofAlzheimer's disease (AD), through inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase activity(762), probably via mediation antioxidant actions against oxidative stress(762).

2. In Parkinson's diseases(PD)
Kampo kami-shoyo-san (TJ-24), a Korean traditional herbal medicine, containing Gan Cao, significantly reduce tremor, disturbances in muscular movement in antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism(766). The formula also showed effectively in relieved symptoms of panic attacks, anticipatory anxiety(767). Liquiritin, a flavonoid extracted from Glycyrrhizae radix, significantly promoted the neurite outgrowth in dose dependant manners, through overexpression of neural related genes, such as neurogenin 3, neurofibromatosis 1, associated to Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease(768).

3. In learning and memory
Oral administration of Glycyrrhizae radix (GR) in rat study, showed to reduce anxiety and promote learning and memory in rats, by attenuating the behavioral and neurochemical impairments caused by repeated stress-induced alterations(770). Palmul-chongmyeong-tang, containing Gan Cao used in used as herbal medicine against ischemia, may be a potential agent for treatment of vascular dementia as it significantly improved learning and memory and attenuated cognitive impairment through reduction of the loss of cholinergic immunoreactivity in the hippocampus induced by cerebral ischemia in rat model(769).
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(719) Chinese herbs for dementia diseases by Hügel HM1, Jackson N, May BH, Xue CC.(PubMed)(759) Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits by Hou Y1, Wang Y2, Zhao J1, Li X1, Cui J1, Ding J2, Wang Y3, Zeng X1, Ling Y4, Shen X5, Chen S2, Huang C4, Pei G6.(PubMed)
(760) Traditional chinese medicine for senile dementia by Lin Z1, Gu J, Xiu J, Mi T, Dong J, Tiwari JK.(PubMed)
(761) Vascular risk factors promote conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease by Li J, Wang YJ, Zhang M, Xu ZQ, Gao CY, Fang CQ, Yan JC, Zhou HD; Chongqing Ageing Study Group.(PubMed)
) (762) Protective effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. on the cognitive deficits caused by beta-amyloid peptide 25-35 in young mice by Ahn J1, Um M, Choi W, Kim S, Ha T.(PubMed)
(763) Treatment of vascular risk factors is associated with slower decline in Alzheimer Deschaintre Y1, Richard F, Leys D, Pasquier F.(PubMed).
(764) [In vitro experiment on scavenging oxy-radical and suppressing myocardial lipid peroxidation with sini decoction].[Article in Chinese] by Wu W1, Luo H, Hou C.(PubMed)
(765) [Anti-lipid peroxidation effects of sini decoction and its components on ischemic myocardium and the dose- and time-effects].[Article in Chinese] by Wu W1, Hou C, Luo H, Jin W, Luo C.(PubMed)
(766) Effectiveness of the Kampo kami-shoyo-san (TJ-24) for tremor of antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism by Ishikawa T1, Funahashi T, Kudo J.(PubMed)
(767) Four cases of panic disorder successfully treated with Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicines: Kami-shoyo-san and Hange-koboku-to. by Mantani N1, Hisanaga A, Kogure T, Kita T, Shimada Y, Terasawa K.(PubMed)
(768) Liquiritin potentiate neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells by Chen ZA1, Wang JL, Liu RT, Ren JP, Wen LQ, Chen XJ, Bian GX.(PubMed)
(769) Neuroprotective effect of palmul-chongmyeong-tang on ischemia-induced learning and memory deficits in the rat. by Yun YJ1, Lee B, Hahm DH, Kang SK, Han SM, Lee HJ, Pyun KH, Shim I.(PubMed)

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