Sunday, 19 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia due to Blood Stasis -TCM Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Blood Stasis -TCM Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.4. Dementia due to Blood Stasis
According to Chinese medical literaure over 3000 years of history, blood stasis may be caused by spleen qi deficiency, but in most cases, it is due to heart qi deficiency cause of inability in transport nutrients to the body organs and cells, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting or death of neurons, cognitive impairments(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842). Blood statsis induced by cold(1142), emotional disorder(1143), aging(1144),chronic illnesses and consumptive disease(1145), can overload the heart capacity, contributing to long-term hypertension(1146) due to decreased or impeded blood flow(1147) causes of hypo-perfusion in cerebral blood flow or acute focal stroke in memory-related cerebral parenchyma induced progression of cognitive decline(*).

1. Wolfberry (Gou qi)
Gou Qi, the sweet and neutral herb is also known as wolfberry, used in TCM as anti cancers(1148)(1149), antioxidative(1150)(1151) and anti aging(1156)(1157) agent and to treat back, leg, and stomach pain(1152), hypopigmentation(1154), improve vision(1153)(1154), diabetes(1155), premature aging(1156), enhance immune system(1157), lower blood lipids(1158), elevate level of testosterone(1159), simulate estrogen and anti estrogen effect through different estrogen receptor mechanisms(1160) etc., as it nourishes and tonifies Liver and Kidneys, moistens the Lungs, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver, lung and kidney channels(1161).

1. Betaine
2. β-sitosterol
3. Linoleic acid
4. Physalien
5. Cryptoxanthin
6. Atropine
7. Hyoscyamine
8. Scopoletin
9. Amino acids
10. Physalein
11. Zeaxanthin
12. Dipalmitate
13. Carotene
14. Etc.

1.1. In Alzheimer's disease(AD)
Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have shown to associate to increased the risk of Alzheime's disease (AD), epidemiologically and clinically. Polysaccharides, phytochemicals derived from wolfberry (LBA) not only inhibited Abeta accumulation but also reduced risk of other factors induced AD(1162). According to the University of Hong Kong, the chemical olysaccharides, also ameliorated glutamate excitotoxicity involved in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1163). The herbal alkaline extract was found to exhibit neuroprotection, through inhibiting Abeta-peptides induced apoptosis and neuronal cell death(1164).

1.2. In neuroprotective effects
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), on focal cerebral ischemic injury in mice model, inhibited neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway(1165). In ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage, chemical Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), reduced apoptosis and decreasednumber of viable cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner nuclear layer (INL), through its antioxidant activity(1166), In PC12 cell, Lycium arbarum extracts inhibited neurotoxin induced Parkinson's disease-like syndrome, through increased intracellular Ca (2+) level and significantly cell viability and cellular ATP levels(1167).

1.3. In cognitive impairment
In prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, Lyciumbarbarum showed to inhibit brain oxidative mitochondrial damage andcognitive dysfunction, through its scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals(1168). Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription, containing Lycium, showed to enhance neuroprotective effects in attenuation of memory impairment, probably through its anti-inflammatory activities(1169).

1.4. In learning and memory
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, scopolamine (SCO-induced cognitive and memory deficits in rats model, ameliorated and suppressed oxidative stress in hippocampus, and neurons apoptosis(1170). On transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, Gou qi extracts at 10 mg/kg improved the performance of the learning and the memory in rieval phases of tested models, through reduced levels of Aβ(1-42) in hippocampal tissue(1171). According toKyung Hee University, Lycium chinense fruit, in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neuronal and cognitive impairment rats model, improved learning and memory deficit in impaired learning and memory scores(1172).

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(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)

(1142) Network-based biomarkers for cold coagulation blood stasis syndrome and the therapeutic effects of shaofu zhuyu decoction in rats by Su S1, Duan J, Cui W, Shang E, Liu P, Bai G, Guo S, Qian D, Tang Y.(PubMed)
(1143) Blood, Blood Stasis, and Blood Path Disorders by Heiner Fruehauf(Classical Chinese medicine)
(1144) Aging & Blood Stasis: A New Tcm Approach to Geriatrics = Shuai Lao Ho Yu Hsueh
by Te-Hsin Yen, Te-Hsin Yen(Good reads)
(1145) A Look at Blood Stasis by Ronald Koh DVM, MS, CVA, CVCH, CVFT. FL USA(Chi Institute)
(1146) Constructing protein-protein interaction network of hypertension with blood stasis syndrome via digital gene expression sequencing and database mining by Lian YH1, Fang MX1, Chen LG2.(PubMed)
(1147) Blood stasis syndrome of coronary heart disease: A perspective of modern medicine. by Yu G1, Wang J.(PubMed)
(1148) Characterization of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide and its effect on human hepatoma cells. by Zhang M1, Tang X, Wang F, Zhang Q, Zhang Z.(PubMed)
(1149) [Inhibition the growth of human leukemia cells by Lycium barbarum polysaccharide].[Article in Chinese] by Gan L1, Wang J, Zhang S.(PubMed)
(1150) Supercritical fluid extract of Lycium chinense Miller root inhibition of melanin production and its potential mechanisms of action. by Huang HC, Huang WY, Tsai TC, Hsieh WY, Ko WP, Chang KJ, Chang TM1.(PubMed)
(1151) Three New Dimers and Two Monomers of Phenolic Amides from the Fruits of Lycium barbarum and Their Antioxidant Activities. by Gao K1, Ma D, Cheng Y, Tian X, Lu Y, Du X, Tang H, Chen J.(PubMed)
(1152) Anti-inflammatory effect of Lycium Fruit water extract in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. by Oh YC1, Cho WK, Im GY, Jeong YH, Hwang YH, Liang C, Ma JY.(PubMed)
(1153) Reversal of the Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Cytotoxicity Pathway by Taurine from Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry) in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Benefit in Diabetic Retinopathy. by Song MK1, Roufogalis BD, Huang TH.(PubMed)(1154) Goji berry effects on macular characteristics and plasma antioxidant levels. by Bucheli P1, Vidal K, Shen L, Gu Z, Zhang C, Miller LE, Wang J.(PubMed)
(1155) Practical Application of Antidiabetic Efficacy of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes by Cai H, Liu F, Zuo P, Huang G, Song Z, Wang T, Lu H, Guo F, Han C, Sun G1.(PubMed)
(1156) wolfberry aging (PubMed)
(1157) An evidence-based update on the pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides. by Cheng J1, Zhou ZW2, Sheng HP3, He LJ4, Fan XW5, He ZX6, Sun T7, Zhang X8, Zhao RJ9, Gu L10, Cao C2, Zhou SF11.(PubMed)
(1158) Anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of Lycium chinense leaf powder in obese rats. by Kang MH1, Park WJ, Choi MK.(PubMed)
(1159) Antagonistic effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on the impaired reproductive system of male rats induced by local subchronic exposure to 60Co-γ irradiation by Luo Q1, Cui X, Yan J, Yang M, Liu J, Jiang Y, Li J, Zhou Y.(PubMed)
(1160) Lycium barbarum inhibits growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells by favorably altering estradiol metabolism. by Li G1, Sepkovic DW, Bradlow HL, Telang NT, Wong GY.(PubMed)
(1161) Qi zi(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1162) Neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides from wolfberry, the fruits of Lycium barbarum, against homocysteine-induced toxicity in rat cortical neurons. by Ho YS1, Yu MS, Yang XF, So KF, Yuen WH, Chang RC.(PubMed)
(1163) Polysaccharides from wolfberry antagonizes glutamate excitotoxicity in rat cortical neurons by Ho YS1, Yu MS, Yik SY, So KF, Yuen WH, Chang RC.(PubMed)
(1164) Characterizing the neuroprotective effects of alkaline extract of Lycium barbarum on beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. by Ho YS1, Yu MS, Lai CS, So KF, Yuen WH, Chang RC.(PubMed)
(1165) Lycium barbarum polysaccharide prevents focal cerebral ischemic injury by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis in mice by Wang T1, Li Y2, Wang Y1, Zhou R1, Ma L3, Hao Y1, Jin S1, Du J1, Zhao C4, Sun T3, Yu J5.(PubMed)
(1166) Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway contributes to the protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in the rodent retina after ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage by He M1, Pan H1, Chang RC2, So KF3, Brecha NC4, Pu M1.(PubMed)
(1167) Neuroprotective effects of Lycium chinense Miller against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by Im AR1, Kim YH, Uddin MR, Chae S, Lee HW, Kim YS, Lee MY.(PubMed)
(1168) A milk-based wolfberry preparation prevents prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, and inhibits oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro by Feng Z1, Jia H, Li X, Bai Z, Liu Z, Sun L, Zhu Z, Bucheli P, Ballèvre O, Wang J, Liu J.(PubMed)
(1169) Neuroprotective effects of a traditional herbal prescription on transient cerebral global ischemia in gerbils by Cai M1, Shin BY, Kim DH, Kim JM, Park SJ, Park CS, Won do H, Hong ND, Kang DH, Yutaka Y, Ryu JH.(PubMed)
(1170) Lycium barbarum polysaccharides prevent memory and neurogenesis impairments in scopolamine-treated rats by Chen W1, Cheng X2, Chen J3, Yi X2, Nie D4, Sun X5, Qin J2, Tian M2, Jin G2, Zhang X2.(PubMed)
(1171) The effects of Gouqi extracts on Morris maze learning in the APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by Zhang Q1, DU X, Xu Y, Dang L, Xiang L, Zhang J.(PubMed)
(1172) Neuroprotective Effect of Lucium chinense Fruit on Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits in the Rats by Park HJ1, Shim HS, Choi WK, Kim KS, Bae H, Shim I.(PubMed)

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