Friday, 3 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia In Herbal Medicine - Bacopa

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

Herbal Medicine forTreatment of Dementia -  Bacopa

Commonly known as Waterhyssop or Water Hyssop, the herb is a semi-woody plants, genus of Hyssopus, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to the east Mediterranean to central Asia, used in traditional medicine as an antibiotic(660)(659), carminative, antispasmodic, antifungal(661), and antiseptic(661)(662) agents and to treat bronchitis(663), asthma(664), digestive ailments(665)(668), insomnia(666), diabetes(667), edema(669)(670), etc.
a. Increases Cerebral Blood Flow
In cerebral blood flow (CBF), Bacopa monnieri's promoted blood flow through its procognitive effect in comparison via dose-dependent hypotensive actions (671). |Together with Ginkgo biloba and donepezil(671)may be a potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy(672).

b. Ethnobotanical treatment
Bacopa, ethnobotanically, may be used as brain tonification(676) and to treat various diseases(673), including Alzheimer's disease
through its phytochemicals in alleviation of AD pathology and associated symptoms(674). According to university System HSC College of Medicine, Bacopa monniera extract (BME), administered starting at 2 months of age for either 2 or 8 months on test mice, significant lowered Abeta 1-40 and 1-42 levels in cortex by as much as 60%, and reverses Y-maze performance and open field hyperlocomotion behavioral changes(675). Its natural products (galantamine and rivastigmine), also has been used pharmaceutically for cognitive and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)(673).

c. Cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression
In olfactory bulbectomized mice, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri(L.) showed to ameliorate memory and emotional deficits(678) and enhanced cognitive performance(679) through its protection of cholinergic systems from OBX-induced neuronal damage(677). In normal healthy participants, the herb also attenuated stress reactivity and mood, through its adaptogenic and nootropic effects, probably via reduction in cortisol levels(680). According to National College of Natural Medicine, standardized dry extract of Bacopamonnieri, promoted the improvement depression scores, combined state plus trait anxiety scores,with few adverse events, primarily stomach(681)

6. Other potential herbs
Herbs used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(682)(683) in traditional medicine, may be due to their effectiveness of phytochemicals in attenuation of oxidative stress and neuro inflammation via neuroglial activation(683).
According to University of Wollongong, herbs and spices, containing high amount of phytochemicals in traditional history of use, with strong roles in cultural heritage, may have a distinguished effect in cognitive decline associated with ageing and the acute effects of psychological and cognitive function(684), probably through active ingredients of spices in modulation of neural response in the peripheral nervous system, via interaction with TRP channel/receptors(685).

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(660) Use of the cryptogein gene to stimulate the accumulation of Bacopa saponins in transgenic Bacopa monnieri plants by Majumdar S1, Garai S, Jha S.(PubMed)
(661) Bacopa antifungal(PubMed)
(662) Phytotoxic and antimicrobial constituents of Bacopa monnieri and Holmskioldia sanguinea. by Chaudhuri PK1, Srivastava R, Kumar S, Kumar S.(PubMed)
(663) Bacopa asthma(PubMed)
(664) Bronchodilatory and cardiovascular effects of an ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera in anaesthetized rats by Dar A1, Channa S.(PubMed)
(665) Evaluation of memory enhancing clinically available standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley rats. by Singh R1, Panduri J, Kumar D, Kumar D, Chandsana H, Ramakrishna R, Bhatta RS.(PubMed)
(666) Bacopa monniera Linn. as an antioxidant: mechanism of action. by Tripathi YB1, Chaurasia S, Tripathi E, Upadhyay A, Dubey GP.(PubMed)
(667) Antihyperglycemic activity of bacosine, a triterpene from Bacopa monnieri, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by Ghosh T1, Maity TK, Singh J.(PubMed)
(668) Effect of Bacopa monniera and Azadirachta indica on gastric ulceration and healing in experimental NIDDM rats by Dorababu M1, Prabha T, Priyambada S, Agrawal VK, Aryya NC, Goel RK.(PubMed)
(669) Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents. by Channa S1, Dar A, Anjum S, Yaqoob M, Atta-Ur-Rahman.(PubMed)
(670) Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents by Channa S1, Dar A, Anjum S, Yaqoob M, Atta-Ur-Rahman(PubMed)
(671) Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis by Stefan Weinmann,1 Stephanie Roll,1 Christoph Schwarzbach,2 Christoph Vauth,2 and Stefan N Willich1(PMC)
(672) Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. by Aguiar S1, Borowski. T.(PubMed)
(673) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal by Singh AG1, Kumar A, Tewari DD.(PubMed)
(674) Ethnobotanical treatment strategies against Alzheimer's disease. by Howes MJ1, Houghton PJ.(PubMed)
(675) Bacopa monniera extract reduces amyloid levels in PSAPP mice. by Holcomb LA1, Dhanasekaran M, Hitt AR, Young KA, Riggs M, Manyam BV.(PubMed)
(676) Ethnobotany and research on medicinal plants in India by Jain SK1.(PubMed)
(677) Bacopa monnieri ameliorates memory deficits in olfactory bulbectomized mice: possible involvement of glutamatergic and cholinergic systems by Le XT1, Pham HT, Do PT, Fujiwara H, Tanaka K, Li F, Van Nguyen T, Nguyen KM, Matsumoto K.(PubMed)
(678) Butea superba-induced amelioration of cognitive and emotional deficits in olfactory bulbectomized mice and putative mechanisms underlying its actions by Mizuki D1, Qi Z, Tanaka K, Fujiwara H, Ishikawa T, Higuchi Y, Matsumoto K.(PubMed)
(679) An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of a special extract ofBacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on sustained cognitive performance by Downey LA1, Kean J, Nemeh F, Lau A, Poll A, Gregory R, Murray M, Rourke J, Patak B, Pase MP, Zangara A, Lomas J, Scholey A, Stough C.(PubMed)
(680) An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri(CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood by Benson S1, Downey LA, Stough C, Wetherell M, Zangara A, Scholey A.(PubMed)
(681) Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial by Calabrese C1, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B.(PubMed)
(682) Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals by Kumar GP1, Khanum F.(PubMed)
(683) Neuroprotective herbs and foods from different traditional medicines and diets. by Iriti M1, Vitalini S, Fico G, Faoro F.(PubMed)
(684) Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future by Tapsell LC1, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Patch CS, Sullivan DR, Fenech M, Roodenrys S, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Williams PG, Fazio VA, Inge KE.(PubMed)
(685) Dampened neural activity and abolition of epileptic-like activity in cortical slices by active ingredients of spices by Pezzoli M1, Elhamdani A1, Camacho S2, Meystre J1, González SM3, le Coutre J4, Markram H1.(PubMed)

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