Monday, 20 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia due to Blood Stasis -TCM Herbal Polygonum multiflorum (He shou wu)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Blood Stasis -TCM Herbal  Polygonum multiflorum (He shou wu)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.4. Dementia due to Blood Stasis
According to Chinese medical literaure over 3000 years of history, blood stasis may be caused by spleen qi deficiency, but in most cases, it is due to heart qi deficiency cause of inability in transport nutrients to the body organs and cells, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting or death of neurons, cognitive impairments(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842). Blood statsis induced by cold(1142), emotional disorder(1143), aging(1144),chronic illnesses and consumptive disease(1145), can overload the heart capacity, contributing to long-term hypertension(1146) due to decreased or impeded blood flow(1147) causes of hypo-perfusion in cerebral blood flow or acute focal stroke in memory-related cerebral parenchyma induced progression of cognitive decline(*).

2. Polygonum multiflorum (He shou wu)
He Shu Wu or Ye Jiao Teng or Shu Wu is also known as Fleece flower root or Fo-ti.
a. The prepared herb is astringent with some sweetness, mildly warm
b. The raw herb is bitter, sweet and neutral
used in TCM to treatment of hyperlipemia(1173), neurasthenia(1174), split personality(1174), promoted hair grown(1175) and prevent hair loss(1176) due to aging, skin rash due to inflammation(1177), etc., as it tonifies and benefits the essence and blood, expels toxins, moistens the intestines, etc. by enhancing the (The prepared herb) liver and kidney channels and (The raw herb) liver, heart and large intestine channels(1178).

1. Polygoacetophenoside
2. Chrysophanol
3. Emodin
4. Rhein
5. Emodin-6
6. Physcion
7. Chrysophanic acid
8. Anthrone
9. beta-sitosterol
10. 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystibene-2O-b-D-glucoside
11. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside
12. Querctin-3-O-arabinoside
13. Lecithin
14. Etc.

2.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Polygonum multiflorum extract, significantly improved AD patients with total effective rate of 93.33% in clinical trial, according to Third XiangyaHospital(1179). In rat model, induced Alzheimer's disease by injecting Abeta 1-40, the herb exhibited improvement of learning and memory ability, through expression of the fluidity of mitochondria membrane and the activity of mitochondrial COX(1180) and ameliorated hippocampal synapses count and synaptophysin expression(1181). In cognitive deficits induced by Abeta25-35,Polygonum multiflorum water extract, also significantly ameliorated the cognitive deficits, probably due to its antioxidant properties(1182).

2.2. In Parkinson disease
Strong evidences suggested that agricultural chemicals and environment toxins, such as dithiocarbamate fungicides, impacted dopamine systems has shown to associate to the development of Parkinson's disease,(1184)(1185). In nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration induced by paraquat and maneb in mice model, ethanol-soluble PME (PME-I) water extracts from Polygonum multiflorum, improved locomotor activity, motor incoordination, and declines of dopamine level, probably through phytochemicals, in the ethanol-soluble fraction(1183).

2.3. In neuroprotective effects
In focal cerebral ischemia mice, hexane extracts of Polygonum multiflorum, exhibited its neuroprotective effects though significantly decreased infarct size and improved neurological and motor function, (1186) and attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner and prevented apoptosis of cortical neurons(1187), in HT22 hippocampal cells(1188), probably through it antioxidant activity. According to Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) extract from Polygonum multiflorum, also improved mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative stress and inhibited apoptosis against induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells(1188).

2.4. In learning and memory
Dietary supplementation with either ethanol or water extracts of Polygonummultiflorum have shown to reduce brain pathological changes and promote learning and memory ability(1191)(1192). In male Sprague-Dawley rats, injected with beta amyloid (Aβ), tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside, an active chemical constituent of extract from Polygonum multiflorum, significantly improved the learning and memory, through protecting synaptic structure and function(1189) and learning and/or memory ability of aged rats by increasedBeta-secretase 1 (BACE1), a beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and decreased ADAM10 (metallopeptidase domain 10), a protein associated to the development of Alzheimer's disease(1190).

B.5. According to TCM philosophy, dementia is also to be induced by the combination/or of Kidney essence vacuity and toxin (turbid phlegm).
C.5.1. Dementia due to toxins accumulation
Toxins accumulation in internal organs disturbed the balance of immunity(1213)(1214) may cause impairment of food intake regulation(1215), exhibition of phlegm(1208)(1208)(1210), retention of fluid(1211)(1212) and blood statsis(1209) induced early the onset of dementia, in aging population with depletion of kidney-essence(1208)(1209), according to traditional Chinese medicine.

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(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)
(1173) [Blood lipid-regulation of stilbene glycoside from polygonum multiflorum].[Article in Chinese] by Gao X1, Hu YJ, Fu LC.(PubMed)
(1174) Polygonum multiflorum extracts improve cognitive performance in senescence accelerated mice by Chan YC1, Wang MF, Chang HC.(PubMed)
(1175) In vivo hair growth-stimulating effect of medicinal plant extract on BALB/c nude mice by Begum S1, Gu LJ, Lee MR, Li Z, Li JJ, Hossain MJ, Wang YB, Sung CK.(PubMed)
(1176) [Impact of 2, 3-dihydrocyclopentacoumarins to growth of transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum and accumulation of stilbene glucosides].[Article in Chinese] by Liu L1, Zhou L, Zhang M, Yu R.(PubMed)
(1177) [Treatment of chronic primary glomerulopathy patients of Shen deficiency and dampness heat syndrome by yishen qingli granule combined low-dose Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside tablet: a clinical efficacy observation].[Article in Chinese] by Sheng MX1, Sun W2, Xing CY3, Yuan FH4, Tang SF5, Xiong PH6, Ma JP7, Zhou D2, Gao K2, Jiang Y2, Chen JH2, Mao HJ3, Mou J4, Luo YZ5, Wei MG6, Liu CX7.(PubMed)
(1178) HE SHOU WU (Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1179) [Effect of compound Polygonum multiflorum extract on Alzheimer's disease].[Article in Chinese] by Chen L1, Huang J, Xue L.(PubMed)
(1180) Effect of polygonum multiflorum on the fluidity of the mitochondria membrane and activity of COX in the hippocampus of rats with Abeta 1-40-induced Alzheimer's disease. by Hou DR1, Wang Y, Xue L, Tian Y, Chen K, Song Z, Yang QD.(PubMed)
(1181) Changes in hippocampal synapses and learning-memory abilities in age-increasing rats and effects of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside in aged rats by Wang R1, Tang Y, Feng B, Ye C, Fang L, Zhang L, Li L.(PubMed)
(1182) Protective effect of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb on amyloid beta-peptide 25-35 induced cognitive deficits in mice by Um MY1, Choi WH, Aan JY, Kim SR, Ha TY.(PubMed)
(1183) Neuroprotective effects of Polygonum multiflorum on nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration induced by paraquat and maneb in mice by Li X1, Matsumoto K, Murakami Y, Tezuka Y, Wu Y, Kadota S.(PubMed)
(1184) The nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as a preferential target of repeated exposures to combined paraquat and maneb: implications for Parkinson's disease by Thiruchelvam M1, Richfield EK, Baggs RB, Tank AW, Cory-Slechta DA(PubMed)
(1185) Environmental toxins and Parkinson's disease: what have we learned from pesticide-induced animal models? by Cicchetti F1, Drouin-Ouellet J, Gross RE.(PubMed)
(1186) Hexane extracts of Polygonum multiflorum improve tissue and functional outcome following focal cerebral ischemia in mice by Lee SV1, Choi KH1, Choi YW2, Hong JW1, Baek JU1, Choi BT1, Shin HK1.(PubMed)
(1187) Hexane extract from Polygonum multiflorum attenuates glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cultured cortical neurons by Jang JY1, Kim HN, Kim YR, Choi YW, Choi YH, Lee JH, Shin HK, Choi BT.(PubMed)
(1188) Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity by Sun FL1, Zhang L, Zhang RY, Li L.(PubMed)
(1189) Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside improves the learning and memory of amyloid-β(₁₋₄₂)-injected rats and may be connected to synaptic changes in the hippocampus by Zhou L1, Hou Y, Yang Q, Du X, Li M, Yuan M, Zhou Z.(PubMed)
(1190) Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside improves learning and (or) memory ability of aged rats and may be connected to the APP pathway by Hou Y1, Yang Q, Zhou L, Du X, Li M, Yuan M, Zhou Z, Li Z.(PubMed)
(1191) Beneficial effects of different Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. extracts on memory and hippocampus morphology by Chan YC1, Cheng FC, Wang MF.(PubMed)
(1192) Polygonum multiflorum extracts improve cognitive performance in senescence accelerated mice. by Chan YC1, Wang MF, Chang HC.(PubMed)
(1193) Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for the therapy of liver disease by Flora K1, Hahn M, Rosen H, Benner K.(PubMed)
(1194) Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future by Abenavoli L1, Capasso R, Milic N, Capasso F.(PubMed)
(1195) Silymarin inhibits cell cycle progression and mTOR activity in activated human T cells: therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases. by Gharagozloo M1, Javid EN, Rezaei A, Mousavizadeh K.(PubMed)
(1196) Silibinin reverses drug resistance in human small-cell lung carcinoma cells by Sadava D1, Kane SE.(PubMed)
(1197) Silibinin inhibits accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth of murine breast cancer. by Forghani P1, Khorramizadeh MR, Waller EK.(PubMed)
(1198) Silymarin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. by Fan L1, Ma Y1, Liu Y1, Zheng D2, Huang G3.(PubMed)
(1199) Immunosuppressive effect of silymarin on mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway: the impact on T cell proliferation and cytokine production by Gharagozloo M1, Jafari S, Esmaeil N, Javid EN, Bagherpour B, Rezaei A.(PubMed)
(1200) Analysis of silibinin in rat plasma and bile for hepatobiliary excretion and oral bioavailability application by Wu JW1, Lin LC, Hung SC, Chi CW, Tsai TH.(PubMed)
(1201) Possible involvement of nitric oxide in antidepressant-like effect of silymarin in male mice. by Khoshnoodi M1, Fakhraei N, Dehpour AR.(PubMed)
(1202) Effects and tolerance of silymarin (milk thistle) in chronic hepatitis C virus infection patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Yang Z1, Zhuang L2, Lu Y1, Xu Q1, Chen X1.(PubMed)
(1203) Effect of silymarin (milk thistle) on liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C unsuccessfully treated with interferon therapy: a randomized controlled trial by Fried MW1, Navarro VJ, Afdhal N, Belle SH, Wahed AS, Hawke RL, Doo E, Meyers CM, Reddy KR; Silymarin in NASH and C Hepatitis (SyNCH) Study Group.(PubMed)
(1204) Shui fei ji(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1205) The clinical utility of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) in cirrhosis of the liver by Boerth J1, Strong KM.(PubMed)
(1206) Immunosuppressive effect of silymarin on mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway: the impact on T cell proliferation and cytokine production by Gharagozloo M1, Jafari S, Esmaeil N, Javid EN, Bagherpour B, Rezaei A.(PubMed)
(1207) Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues by Mortel M1, Mehta SD.(PubMed)
(1208) Effect of reinforcing kidney-essence, removing phlegm, and promoting mental therapy on treating Alzheimer'sdisease. by Liu P1, Kong M, Liu S, Chen G, Wang P.(PubMed)
(1209) Effects of Chinese medicine for tonifying the kidney and resolving phlegm and blood stasis in treating patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind and parallel-controlled trial by Miao YC1, Tian JZ, Shi J, Mao M.(PubMed)
(1210) Effects of acupuncture on Chinese medicine syndromes of vascular dementia. by Shi GX1, Liu CZ, Guan W, Wang ZK, Wang L, Xiao C, Li ZG, Li QQ, Wang LP.(PubMed)
(1211) Accuracy of brain amyloid detection in clinical practice using cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid 42: a cross-validation study against amyloid positron emission tomography by Palmqvist S1, Zetterberg H2, Blennow K2, Vestberg S3, Andreasson U2, Brooks DJ4, Owenius R5, Hägerström D6, Wollmer P7, Minthon L8, Hansson O8.(PubMed)
(1212) Apolipoprotein E genotype and the diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer disease by Lautner R1, Palmqvist S2, Mattsson N3, Andreasson U1, Wallin A1, Pålsson E1, Jakobsson J1, Herukka SK4, Owenius R5, Olsson B1, Hampel H6, Rujescu D7,Ewers M8, Landén M9, Minthon L2, Blennow K1, Zetterberg H10, Hansson O2; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.(PubMed)
(1213) Immunity factors for two related tRNAGln targeting killer toxins distinguish cognate and non-cognate toxic subunits by Klassen R1, Kast A, Wünsche G, Paluszynski JP, Wemhoff S, Meinhardt, F. (PubMed)
(1214) Non structural protein of avian influenza A (H11N1) virus is a weaker suppressor of immune responses but capable of inducing apoptosis in host cells. by Mukherjee S1, Majumdar S, Vipat VC, Mishra AC, Chakrabarti AK.(PubMed)
(1215) The anorexia of aging in humans by Hays NP1, Roberts SB.(PubMed)

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