Friday, 25 March 2016

Most Common Disease of elder: The Clinical trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Polymyalagia Arthritis (Rheumatica): Top foods to reduce risk of inflammation

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia


                  Polymyalagia Arthritis (Rheumatica)

Polymalagia Arthritis is defined as a condition a common inflammatory rheumatic disease which causes pain, stiffness and tenderness in large muscles, including muscles shoulders and pelvic girdle as a result of the presence of a synovitis in proximal joints and periarticular structures.


B. In herbal  and traditional Chinese medicine perspective
B.1. Diet modification according herbal and TCM medicine specialist
1. Top foods to reduce risk of inflammation
Low-grade inflammation has found to play a pathophysiological role in patient with Polymyalgia Rheumatica(PMR), according to the University Giessen(158).According to Medical University Innsbruck, the relationship between diet, immunity, and the microbiota, may be necessary for us to rethink of the develop diet-based approaches to prevent or treat many diseases(283,159).
1. 1.Garlic
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belongings to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia, used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat common cold and flu, strengthen immunity, etc.... Recent studies also showed that garlic exhibits its anti-inflammatory effects against chronic inflammatory disease(160) through regulation of production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mechanisms(161).

1.2. Ginger
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root is the genus Zingiber, belongings to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil, used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Recent study showed that ginger expressed its anti inflammatory effects through its mediators within the complexity of antioxidant activity(162).
According to the joint study of the Tshwane University of Technology, ginger's phytochemicals beside expressed its effects on anti-inflammation, it also exhibited a host of biological activities, ranging from anticancer, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-allergic to various central nervous system activities(163).

1.3. Turmeric
Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belongings to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti-oxidant, anti inflammations, etc. agent. Epidemiological studies also found that the efficacy of turmeric for treatment for low grade inflammatory diseases(164) through its anti inflammatory(165), antioxidant(165) and immunmodulatory activities.

1.4. Green tea
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, green tea has been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world. Epidemiological studies suggested that green tea improved chronic inflammatory diseases through its anti proinflammatory cytokines(166) and
 its antioxidant(168), anti inflammatory(167) and immune modulatory(169) activities.

(158) Ultrasonography of the glenohumeral joints--a helpful instrument in differentiation in elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica by Lange U1, Piegsa M, Teichmann J, Neeck G.(PubMed)
(283,159) Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease by Kirsty Brown,† Daniella DeCoffe,† Erin Molcan, and Deanna L. Gibson(PubMed)
(160) Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. by Shin JH1, Ryu JH, Kang MJ, Hwang CR, Han J, Kang D.(PubMed)
(161) aged black garlic exerts anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing no and proinflammatory cytokine production with less cytoxicity in LPS-stimulated raw 264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced septicemia mice. by Kim MJ1, Yoo YC, Kim HJ, Shin SK, Sohn EJ, Min AY, Sung NY, Kim MR.(PubMed)
(162) Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of crude ginger and rosemary extracts obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction on macrophage and tumor cell line: the influence of vehicle type. by Justo OR1, Simioni PU2, Gabriel DL2, Tamashiro WM2, Rosa Pde T3, Moraes ÂM4.(PubMed)
(163) Gingerols and shogaols: Important nutraceutical principles from ginger by Semwal RB1, Semwal DK1, Combrinck S2, Viljoen AM3.(PubMed)
(164) Effect of citrus polyphenol- and curcumin-supplemented diet on inflammatory state in obese cats by Leray V1, Freuchet B, Le Bloc'h J, Jeusette I, Torre C, Nguyen P.(PubMed)
(165) Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by Ramadan G1, Al-Kahtani MA, El-Sayed WM.(PubMed)
(166) Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate and cranberry proanthocyanidins act in synergy with cathelicidin (LL-37) to reduce the LPS-induced inflammatory response in a three-dimensional co-culture model of gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts by Lombardo Bedran TB1, Palomari Spolidorio D2, Grenier D3.(PubMed)
(167) Antiinflammatory action of EGCG, the main component of green tea, through STAT-1 inhibition by Tedeschi E1, Suzuki H, Menegazzi M.(PubMed)
(168) Antioxidant potential of green and black tea determined using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay by Langley-Evans SC1.(PubMed)
(169) Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Suppresses Autoimmune Arthritis Through Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Expressing Dendritic Cells and the Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2 Antioxidant Pathway by Min SY1, Yan M1, Kim SB2, Ravikumar S3, Kwon SR4, Vanarsa K3, Kim HY5, Davis LS1, Mohan C3(PubMed)


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