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Thursday, 28 January 2016

Most Common Disease of elder: The Clinical trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Antioxidant

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than men and generally occurs after the ages of 40, causing diminished quality of life of many elders(1). According to CDC, Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)  affects over 52 millions of adults in the US alone, including 294,000 children under age 18 with some form of arthritis or rheumatic conditions(2). Rheumatoid Arthritis can induced bone loss through elevating bone resorption without increasing bone formation(4). A cross-sectional population-based study of 1042 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that RA patients had an increased risk of death from various causes(4a).


                             The Antioxidant

Antioxidants found abundantly in fruits and vegetables can enhance the immune system fighting against forming of free radicals causes of irregular cell growth and foreign invasion of inflammation and infection.
1. Vitamin C
Vitamin C, one of most powerful free radical scavengers, played an important role in prevention of domino effects of imbalance of estrogen may be a potent antioxidant effectively in normalization of the impaired oxidant/antioxidant system and delayed complication of RA(161). Dr, Al-Okbi SY in the study of elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers suggested that vitamin C can be used as as complementary medicine to manage rheumatoid arthritis due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities(162).
But Dr. Rosenbaum CC and the research team at the the Bethesda North Hospital Pharmacy iunsisted that more high quality research are necessary before supplements including vitamin C can be effectively and safely recommended to reduce nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or steroid usage"(163)

2. Vitamin E 
Low intake of vitamin E and selenium have been found to the RA elder patient(166).Vitamin E, another free radical scavenger may also be  effective for patient with RA due to its positive effect on autoimmune disease by decreasing proinflammatory cytokines and lipid mediator(164). Dr. Aryaeian N. in the investigation of the effectiveness of supplements in RA, showed that the procession of property in promoted immunity and involvement of inflammatory parameters may put vitamin E in front of other rheumatoid arthritis (RA)management supplements(165).

3. Glucosamine
Glucosamine, a compound of the simple sugar glucose and the amino acid glutamine, is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans may be another antioxidant used for management of symptoms of patient with RA, according to the study of 25 patients in the glucosamine group and 26 patients in the placebo group(167). Dr. Matsuno H. and the research team at the Matsuno Clinic for Rheumatic Diseases, said" (oral administration of) glucosamine-chondroitin-quercetin glucoside (GCQG) for 3 months showed a significant improvement in pain symptoms, daily activities (walking and climbing up and down stairs), and visual analogue scale, and changes in the synovial fluid properties"(168) in patient of OA and RA. Further more, the supplement also found to consist the therapeutic potential for arthritis by exerting antioxidative and immunomodulatory effects(169).

4. Methylsulfonylmethane
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), an antioxidant with organosulfur compound has shown to involve in reduced the progression of inflammatory processes in RA patient(170). The Jazan University study in the comparison of the effectiveness of Echinacea extract and composite glucosamine, chondroitin and methyl sulfonyl methane supplements, showed that both ingredient exhibit anti inflammation, oedema and mild proliferation of synovial cells activities, through reduced cartilage damage and bone density of that may be a promising light on arthritis treatment(171)

Arthritis Is Curable
You Can Eliminate Osteoarthritis
By addressing the Underlying Causes through Clinical Trials and Studies

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References
(1) 8 Areas of Age-Related Change(NIH)
(2) Arthritis-Related Statistics(CDC)
(3) Valgus deformities of the feet and characteristics of gait in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis by Keenan MA1, Peabody TD, Gronley JK, Perry J.(PubMed)
(4) Serum Sclerostin Level Among Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Relation to Disease Activity ,Bone Mineral Density and Radiological Grading by Mehaney DA, Eissa M, Anwar S, El-Din SF(PubMed)
(4a) Death rates and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based study by Sihvonen S1, Korpela M, Laippala P, Mustonen J, Pasternack A(PubMed)
(161) Effect of green tea extract and vitamin C on oxidant or antioxidant status of rheumatoid arthritis rat model by Meki AR1, Hamed EA, Ezam KA(PubMed)
(162) Nutraceuticals of anti-inflammatory activity as complementary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.
Al-Okbi SY1(PubMed)
(163) Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis by Rosenbaum CC1, O'Mathúna DP, Chavez M, Shields K.(PubMed)
(164) Effects of diets containing fish oil and vitamin E on rheumatoid arthritis. by Tidow-Kebritchi S1, Mobarhan S.(PubMed)
(165) Effect of conjugated linoleic Acid, vitamin e, alone or combined on immunity and inflammatory parameters in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. by Aryaeian N1, Djalali M2, Shahram F3, Djazayery A4, Eshragian MR5(PubMed)
(166)Intake of antioxidants in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by Silva BN1, Araújo ÍL1, Queiroz PM2, Duarte AL3, Burgos MG4.(PubMed)
(167) Effects of glucosamine administration on patients with rheumatoid arthritis by Nakamura H1, Masuko K, Yudoh K, Kato T, Kamada T, Kawahara T.(PubMed)
(168) Effects of an oral administration of glucosamine-chondroitin-quercetin glucoside on the synovial fluid properties in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis by Matsuno H1, Nakamura H, Katayama K, Hayashi S, Kano S, Yudoh K, Kiso Y.(PubMed)
(169) The anti-arthritic and immune-modulatory effects of NHAG: a novel glucosamine analogue in adjuvant-induced arthritis by Shah SU1, Jawed H, Awan SI, Anjum S, Simjee SU.(PubMed)
(170) The "MESACA" study: methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids in the treatment of gonarthrosis by Notarnicola A1, Tafuri S, Fusaro L, Moretti L, Pesce V, Moretti B.(PubMed)
(171) The effectiveness of Echinacea extract or composite glucosamine, chondroitin and methyl sulfonyl methane supplements on acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis rat model by Arafa NM1, Hamuda HM, Melek ST, Darwish SK.(PubMed)