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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than men and generally occurs after the ages of 40, causing diminished quality of life of many elders(1). According to CDC, Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affects over 52 millions of adults in the US alone, including 294,000 children under age 18 with some form of arthritis or rheumatic conditions(2). Rheumatoid Arthritis can induced bone loss through elevating bone resorption without increasing bone formation(4). A cross-sectional population-based study of 1042 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that RA patients had an increased risk of death from various causes(4a).
1. Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), one the most leading cause of death in US, in particular Coronary artery disease, is found to associate to patient with RA(95). Dr.Goodson N said" Cardiovascular death is........ responsible for approximately half the deaths observed in RA(95). The study of 54 patients with RA :87% were women, with a mean age of 51 and 92% with rheumatoid factor positive showed that high homocysteine concentration is correlate to highest risk of CVD in RA patient(96).
Recent study by Dr. Kumar N and Armstrong DJ. insisted that traditional risk factors such as homocysteine, oxidised low-density lipoprotein, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and leptin may contribute to the growing rates CVD death in RA patient(97).
The chronic, debilitating, autoimmune nature of RA affected directly or indirectly in almost all organ systems of RA patient, have shown to induced risk of infection(98) which is found to be responsible for death of 25% of RA patients(99). According to the joint study lead by Tampere University, in total of 10,994 patient-years, 341 serious infections were found in patient with RA(100).
3. Mental health issues
According to the study by National Institute for Science and Technology high prevalence of anxiety and depression and even suicide ideation has been found to associated to patient with RA(101) probably due to inflict of medicine(101). Dr. Rouse PC and the research team at the joint study lead by the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, suggested that depression is one most concern and positive psychological well-being in RA patients(102).
Dr. Ryan and Dr. McGuire B insisted that chronic pain associated to PA may constitute to psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with RA(103).
Use of TNF-alpha antagonists for treatment of inflammatory diseases may associate to risk of cancer, particular lung cancer(104). According Dr. Buchbinder R and the research team lead by the Monash University, "Malignancy incidence was low in this RA cohort and biologic exposure did not increase the risk of malignancy. Melanoma risk was increased in both TNFi-treated and biologic-naïve RA patients compared with the general population suggesting that RA status, and possibly methotrexate exposure, may be responsible"(105).
Arthritis Is Curable
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(1) 8 Areas of Age-Related Change(NIH)
(2) Arthritis-Related Statistics(CDC)
(3) Valgus deformities of the feet and characteristics of gait in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis by Keenan MA1, Peabody TD, Gronley JK, Perry J.(PubMed)
(4) Serum Sclerostin Level Among Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Relation to Disease Activity ,Bone Mineral Density and Radiological Grading by Mehaney DA, Eissa M, Anwar S, El-Din SF(PubMed)
(4a) Death rates and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based study by Sihvonen S1, Korpela M, Laippala P, Mustonen J, Pasternack A(PubMed)