Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).
The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).
B.1. Life style modification according herbal and TCM medicine specialist
Life style modification has shown to be beneficiary for patients with osteoartritis to improve musculoskeletal and bone health and reduce disability,according to the University of Tasmania(276). Modern herbal and TCM medicine specialists may suggest the following
1. Lose some weight
Over weight and obesity are found to associate the risk factors and risks of rapid progression of the disease(277)(278). In the discussion of obesity versus osteoarthritis, Dr. Sartori-Cintra AR and the research team at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, indicated that obesity is associated to wide range of diseases, such as osteometabolic diseases, including osteoporosis and osteoarthritis and suggested that physical activity combined with changes in diet composition can reverse the inflammatory and leptin resistance, reducing progression or preventing the onset of osteoarthritis(236).
Exercise, today is less popular leisure-time activity in many countries throughout the Western world, especially in the youth due to promotion of information collection through mobile phone. According to study, moderate exercise, reduced the risk on the onset and progression of osteoarthritis joint disease(279). According to Boston University Arthritis, habitual physical activity post no risk of knee OA for men or women, during the 18th biennial examination (1983-85), in the study of 1,415 subjects had a mean age of 73 years(279). Walking is found to be the most preference of aerobic exercise tested in the older with knee osteoarthritis, depending to the distance, walking distance improves 26%, 31%, and 15% of pain and physical function, according to Dr.Stephen P. Messier,
Combination of weight loss and exercise in older adults with knee osteoarthritis showed to improve level of leptin of which related to the biomarkers for earlier diagnosis in patient with OA(281).
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(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review by Pereira D1, Peleteiro B, Araújo J, Branco J, Santos RA, Ramos E.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of therapeutic aquatic exercise on symptoms and function associated with lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis by Waller B1, Ogonowska-Slodownik A2, Vitor M3, Lambeck J4, Daly D5, Kujala UM6, Heinonen A7.(PubMed)
(5) Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on pain, physical functions and safety outcomes in patients with kneeosteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang C1, Xie Y2, Luo X3, Ji Q3, Lu C3, He C4, Wang P3.(PubMed)
(6) Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis by Farid R1, Rezaieyazdi Z, Mirfeizi Z, Hatef MR, Mirheidari M, Mansouri H, Esmaelli H, Bentley G, Lu Y, Foo Y, Watson RR.(PubMed)
(7) Functional ability, mobility, and pain before and after knee replacement in patients aged 75 and older: a cross-sectional study by Limnell K1, Jämsen E, Huhtala H, Jäntti P, Puolakka T, Jylhä M.(PubMed)
(8) The symptoms of OA and the genesis of pain by David J. Hunter, MBBS PhD,1,2 Jason J. McDougall, BSc PhD,3 and Francis J. Keefe4(PubMed)
(276) Lifestyle modifications to improve musculoskeletal and bone health and reduce disability--a life-course approach by Jones G1, Winzenberg TM2, Callisaya ML3, Laslett LL4.(PubMed)
(277) Weight loss reduces knee-joint loads in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis by Messier SP1, Gutekunst DJ, Davis C, DeVita P.(PubMed)
(278) Effect of weight reduction in obese patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Christensen R1, Bartels EM, Astrup A, Bliddal H.(PubMed)
(279) Exercise and osteoarthritis by David J Hunter1,2 and Felix Eckstein3,4(PMC)
(280) Diet and Exercise for Obese Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis by Stephen P. Messier, Ph.D(PMC)
(281)Adipokines: Biomarkers for osteoarthritis? by Thitiya Poonpet and Sittisak Honsawek(PMC)