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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).
The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).
Ice therapy such as repeated, rather than continuous, ice applications may be considered as an effective treatment for some patient with osteoarthritis(380) as it reduces swelling and pain(380), if the therapy is applied correctly to avoid side effects, and prevent possible further injury, but according to Dr. Mac Auley DC. as the therapy has shown to impair reflex activity and motor function up to 30 following treatment.(378). The doctor also said that guidance on the duration, frequency, or length of ice treatment may be depending on the particular ice therapy, injury location, or severity(379). Heat therapy has shown to loosen tissues and relax stiff joints may also benefits to some patient of osteoartritis(381). According to the study by University of Haifa, thermal and athermal short-wave diathermyhave shown effectively for the management of knee osteoarthritis(382).
The most oldest form of medical treatment in traditional Chinese medicine has been known for its function in relief pain(383) and functional limitation(384) for chronic patient, including patient with moderate or severe chronic knee pain(383), peripheral joint osteoarthritis(384) and hip osteoarthritis(385) with many different techniques, such as acupuncture techniques, moxibustion, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(392).
In pain management, acupuncture is found to significant reduce pain intensity, improve functional mobility and quality of life in patient with osteoarthritis (386). According to the University of York, in patient with knee osteoarthritis, in a systematic review with network meta-analysis, indicated that
acupuncture is considered as one of the more effective physical treatments for alleviating osteoarthritis knee pain in the short-term, but due to poor quality of the study(387), larger sample size and multi sample studies are necessary to confirm this claim.
Massage therapy has been used in traditional Chinese medicine over thousands of year for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)(392)(389), especially for OA patient for short-term pain relief(389). In a sixty-eight adults with radiographically confirmed OA, massage therapy seems to be most efficacious relief pain, stiffness, and improve physical function limitation for patient OA of the knee(390).
According to the joint study by the University Medical Center and Avans University of Applied Scienc, in a systematic review of randomised clinical trials, said that there is a evidence indicated that massage improves function in the short term compared to no treatment in people with knee arthritis(391)
Hydrotherapy, using water for the treatment of disease has shown some beneficiary for treating pain in patient with lower back pain(399), joint hemorrhages(400) and multiple sclerosis(401). In patient with knee osteoarthritis, water therapy reduced knee pain and increased knee function in participants with knee OA as effectively as conventional based therapy(402).
Tai chi, an ancient form of mind-body exercise or technique used in Chinese with meditative movements that promote balance and healing of the mind and body induced mental concentration, physical balance, muscle relaxation, and relaxed breathing(406).
An ancient form of medical technique originated from India, is become a popular multimodal mind-body exercise in the Western world for promoted flexibility, strength, endurance, and balance(412). According to the study by the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (CC, JFW), Yoga 45 to 90 mins per session for 6 to 12 wks, reduced pain, stiffness, and swelling, inpatient with osteoarthritis of the knees(413) or osteoarthritis but the study showed an inconclusive outcome on physical function and psychosocial well-being(412).
Chiropractic is one the alternative therapy for diagnosis and treatment of Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), including osteoarthritis. It is one the primary care of hip osteoarthritis in Denmark(425)
According to the Cleveland Chiropractic College, chiropractic increased range of motion, improved balance and gait speed, and decreased disability after a 12-week course in a 70 year old geriatric patient with left hip pain, a history of repetitive falls, poor balance, myofascial dysfunction, and hip osteoarthritis(424) of that may contribute to a conservative management options for patient with hip osteoarthritis(426).
Chiropractic management showed to decreased WOMAC scores and increases in hip range of motion in patient of hip osteoarthritis, according to the study by Autralia(427) and may provide a short-term benefit to relieve hip pain for patients with hip osteoarthritis waiting for hip surgery(428), according to the report of Scandinavian College of Chiropractic.
9. Chinese Herbal Bath Therapy
and Chinese databases conducted by the Shuguang Hospital affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tufts University and Tufts University School of Medicine, the therapy effectively reduced pain, improved physical performance, and wellness in comparison to standard western treatment with little or no adverse effects(496).
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(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review by Pereira D1, Peleteiro B, Araújo J, Branco J, Santos RA, Ramos E.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of therapeutic aquatic exercise on symptoms and function associated with lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis by Waller B1, Ogonowska-Slodownik A2, Vitor M3, Lambeck J4, Daly D5, Kujala UM6, Heinonen A7.(PubMed)
(5) Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on pain, physical functions and safety outcomes in patients with kneeosteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang C1, Xie Y2, Luo X3, Ji Q3, Lu C3, He C4, Wang P3.(PubMed)
(6) Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis by Farid R1, Rezaieyazdi Z, Mirfeizi Z, Hatef MR, Mirheidari M, Mansouri H, Esmaelli H, Bentley G, Lu Y, Foo Y, Watson RR.(PubMed)
(7) Functional ability, mobility, and pain before and after knee replacement in patients aged 75 and older: a cross-sectional study by Limnell K1, Jämsen E, Huhtala H, Jäntti P, Puolakka T, Jylhä M.(PubMed)
(8) The symptoms of OA and the genesis of pain by David J. Hunter, MBBS PhD,1,2 Jason J. McDougall, BSc PhD,3 and Francis J. Keefe4(PubMed)
(376) Management of Osteoarthritis with Avocado/Soybean Unsaponifiables by Christiansen BA1, Bhatti S2, Goudarzi R3, Emami S4.(PubMed)
(377) Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables prevent the inhibitory effect of osteoarthritic subchondral osteoblasts on aggrecan and type II collagen synthesis by chondrocytes by Henrotin YE1, Deberg MA, Crielaard JM, Piccardi N, Msika P, Sanchez C.(PubMed)
(378) Ice therapy: how good is the evidence? by Mac Auley DC1.(PubMed)
(379) Do textbooks agree on their advice on ice? by MacAuley D1.(PubMed)
(380) Should I use heat or ice to ease knee pain from osteoarthritis?[No authors listed](PubMed)
(381) Osteoarthritis-dependent changes in antinociceptive action of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channel blockers: An in vivo electrophysiological study in the rat by Rahman W1, Dickenson AH2(PubMed)
(382) Effectiveness of thermal and athermal short-wave diathermy for the management of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Laufer Y1, Dar G.(PubMed)
(383) Acupuncture for chronic knee pain: a randomized clinical trial by Hinman RS1, McCrory P2, Pirotta M3, Relf I3, Forbes A4, Crossley KM5, Williamson E6, Kyriakides M3, Novy K3, Metcalf BR1, Harris A7, Reddy P8, Conaghan PG9, Bennell KL1.(PubMed)
(384) Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis by Manheimer E1, Cheng K, Linde K, Lao L, Yoo J, Wieland S, van der Windt DA, Berman BM, Bouter LM.(PubMed)
(385) Effect of physical therapy on pain and function in patients with hip osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial by Bennell KL1, Egerton T1, Martin J1, Abbott JH2, Metcalf B1, McManus F1, Sims K3, Pua YH4, Wrigley TV1, Forbes A5, Smith C5, Harris A6, Buchbinder R7.(PubMed)
(386) Pain management with acupuncture in osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. by Manyanga T1, Froese M, Zarychanski R, Abou-Setta A, Friesen C, Tennenhouse M, Shay BL.(PubMed)
(387) Acupuncture and other physical treatments for the relief of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee: network meta-analysis by Corbett MS1, Rice SJ, Madurasinghe V, Slack R, Fayter DA, Harden M, Sutton AJ, Macpherson H, Woolacott NF.(PubMed)
(388) Evidence from RCTs on optimal acupuncture treatment for knee osteoarthritis--an exploratory review by Vas J1, White A.(PubMed)
(389) Gait analysis of patients with knee osteoarthritis before and after Chinese massage treatment by Qingguang Z, Min F, Li G, Shuyun J, Wuquan S, Jianhua L, Yong L.(PubMed)
(390) Massage therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial by Perlman AI1, Sabina A, Williams AL, Njike VY, Katz DL.(PubMed)
(391) Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review by Bervoets DC1, Luijsterburg PA1, Alessie JJ2, Buijs MJ2, Verhagen AP1.(PubMed)
(392) Complementary and alternative medicine in osteoarthritis by De Luigi AJ1.(PubMed)
(393) Spa therapy and balneotherapy for treating low back pain: meta-analysis of randomized trials by Pittler MH1, Karagülle MZ, Karagülle M, Ernst E.(PubMed)
(394) The effect of spa therapy in chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled, single-blind, follow-up study by Tefner IK1, Németh A, Lászlófi A, Kis T, Gyetvai G, Bender T.(PubMed)
(395) Balneotherapy (or spa therapy) for rheumatoid arthritis by Verhagen AP1, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Boers M, Cardoso JR, Lambeck J, de Bie R, de Vet HC.(PubMed)
(396) May spa therapy be a valid opportunity to treat hand osteoarthritis? A review of clinical trials and mechanisms of action by Fortunati NA1, Fioravanti A2, Seri G1, Cinelli S2, Tenti S3.(PubMed)
(397) Spa therapy: can be a valid option for treating knee osteoarthritis? by Tenti S1, Cheleschi S, Galeazzi M, Fioravanti A.(PubMed)
(398) Effects of spa therapy on serum leptin and adiponectin levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis. by Fioravanti A1, Cantarini L, Bacarelli MR, de Lalla A, Ceccatelli L, Blardi P.(PubMed)
(399) Effectiveness of Back School program versus hydrotherapy in elderly patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized clinical trial by Costantino C1, Romiti D.(PubMed)
(400) Effects of therapeutic exercise and hydrotherapy on pain severity and knee range of motion in patients with hemophilia: a randomized controlled trial by Mazloum V1, Rahnama N1, Khayambashi K1.(PubMed)
(401) Hydrotherapy for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial by Castro-Sánchez AM1, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Lara-Palomo I, Saavedra-Hernández M, Arroyo-Morales M, Moreno-Lorenzo C.(PubMed)
(402) Hydrotherapy versus conventional land-based exercise for the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized clinical trial by Silva LE1, Valim V, Pessanha AP, Oliveira LM, Myamoto S, Jones A, Natour J.(PubMed)
(403) Physical activity for osteoarthritis management: a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes by Fransen M1, Nairn L, Winstanley J, Lam P, Edmonds J.(PubMed)
(404) Randomised controlled trial of the cost-effectiveness of water-based therapy for lower limb osteoarthritis by Cochrane T1, Davey RC, Matthes Edwards SM.(PubMed)
(405) Effect of watergym in knee osteoarthritis by Guerreiro JP1, Claro RF1, Rodrigues JD1, Freire BF1.(PubMed)
(406) The effects of tai chi on depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Wang F, Lee EK, Wu T, Benson H, Fricchione G, Wang W, Yeung AS.(PubMed)
(407) The effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions-cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses by Chen YW1, Hunt MA1, Campbell KL1, Peill K2, Reid WD3.(PubMed)
(408) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) instruments among individuals with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study of floor/ceiling effects and construct validity by Driban JB1, Morgan N2,3, Price LL4, Cook KF5, Wang C6.(PubMed)
(409) Tai Chi is effective in treating knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial by Wang C1, Schmid CH, Hibberd PL, Kalish R, Roubenoff R, Rones R, McAlindon T.(PubMed)
(410) Tai Chi for treating knee osteoarthritis: designing a long-term follow up randomized controlled trial by Wang C1, Schmid CH, Hibberd PL, Kalish R, Roubenoff R, Rones R, Okparavero A, McAlindon T.(PubMed)
(411) Efficacy of Tai Chi on pain, stiffness and function in patients with osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis by Yan JH1, Gu WJ, Sun J, Zhang WX, Li BW, Pan L.(PubMed)
(412) Effects of Yoga on Symptoms, Physical Function, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adults with Osteoarthritis: A Focused Review by Cheung C1, Park J, Wyman JF.(PubMed)
(413) Iyengar yoga for treating symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knees: a pilot study by Kolasinski SL1, Garfinkel M, Tsai AG, Matz W, Van Dyke A, Schumacher HR.(PubMed)
(414) Topical Ginger Treatment With a Compress or Patch for Osteoarthritis Symptoms. by Therkleson T1.(PubMed)
(415) Ginger Therapy for Osteoarthritis: A Typical Case by Therkleson T1.(PubMed)
(416) Topical Ginger Treatment With a Compress or Patch for Osteoarthritis Symptoms by Therkleson T1(PubMed)
(418) Civamide cream 0.075% in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a 12-week randomized controlled clinical trial with a longterm extension by Schnitzer TJ1, Pelletier JP, Haselwood DM, Ellison WT, Ervin JE, Gordon RD, Lisse JR, Archambault WT, Sampson AR, Fezatte HB, Phillips SB, Bernstein JE.(PubMed)
(419) High strength capsaicin cream for osteoarthritis pain: rapid onset of action and improved efficacy with twice daily dosing by Schnitzer TJ1, Posner M, Lawrence ID.(PubMed)
(420) Effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin cream in the treatment of chronic soft tissue pain.
Chrubasik S1, Weiser T, Beime B.(PubMed)
(421) Neuromuscular electrostimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle waisting by Heidland A1, Fazeli G, Klassen A, Sebekova K, Hennemann H, Bahner U, Di Iorio B.(PubMed)
(423) Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee by Rutjes AW1, Nüesch E, Sterchi R, Kalichman L, Hendriks E, Osiri M, Brosseau L, Reichenbach S, Jüni P.(PubMed)
(424) Chiropractic care of a 70-year-old female patient with hip osteoarthritis by Strunk RG1, Hanses M.(PubMed)
(425) Prevalence of hip osteoarthritis in chiropractic practice in Denmark: a descriptive cross-sectional and prospective study by Poulsen E1, Christensen HW, Overgaard S, Hartvigsen J.(PubMed)
(426) A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic management of the lower limb kinetic chain for the treatment of hiposteoarthritis: a study protocol by de Luca K1, Pollard H, Brantingham J, Globe G, Cassa T.(PubMed)
(427) Chiropractic management of the kinetic chain for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis: an Australian case series by de Luca K1, Pollard H, Brantingham J, Globe G, Cassa T.(PubMed)
(428) Effects of chiropractic care on pain and function in patients with hip osteoarthritis waiting for arthroplasty: a clinical pilot trial by Thorman P1, Dixner A, Sundberg T.(PubMed)
(429) Efficacy of treating low back pain and dysfunction secondary to osteoarthritis: chiropractic care compared with moist heat alone by Beyerman KL1, Palmerino MB, Zohn LE, Kane GM, Foster KA.(PubMed)
(495) Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults and Children: United States, 2007 by Patricia M. Barnes, M.A., and Barbara Bloom, M.P.A., Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics; and Richard L. Nahin, Ph.D., M.P.H., National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health
(496) Chinese Herbal Bath Therapy for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials by Chen B1, Zhan H1, Chung M2, Lin X1, Zhang M1, Pang J1, Wang C3.(PubMed)