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During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood. Instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.
The Pill normally is prescribed by your doctor to reduce the heavy period blood for woman with or with out endometriosis as well as in treating of period pain, or contraceptive purpose ( 21 days on and 7 days off).
A. The Good(Effectiveness)
1. Reduce the period blood flow(1) as resulting in lowering the risk of more developing of endometriosis(2).
2. Reduce the bleeding(1) by thinning the endometrial lining.
3. Reduce the period pain(3) by inhibiting the hormone prostaglandins hormones that cause the uterine muscles spasm(2).
4. Shrink the endometriosis and reduce the bleeding of into cysts and pelvic cavity(3) because the Pill creates the pregnant-like state.
5. Suppress the estrogen that is needed to start a menstrual cycle(5)(6).
B. The Bad(The Risks)
1. Blood clots
All hormonal methods of birth control pose a threat to normal blood flow. The oral contraceptive combination pill is no exception, it increases the risk of blood clots in your legs or on the lung caused by estrogen in the pill that makes your blood thicker in the veins(7)(8).
Woman who takes the oral contraceptive combination pill increases the risk of stroke caused by blockage of blood flow to the brain as resulting of high level of estrogen in the pill that reduces the oxygen transportation as the blood getting thicker.
3. Heart disease(11)
Similar to the stroke, as our blood get thicker, our heart has to pump harder to provide oxygen for our body cells need causing hypertension. If our heart has to work that hard for a prolong period of time because of long term use of birth control pill, it will be damaged causing heart disease.
4. Skin pigment(12)(13)
Some woman may experience increasing of pigmentation of skin that shows up in patchy and light brown area caused by estrogen in the pill.
5. Mood swing(14)
Some women may experience mood swing while taking the pill, it is caused by significant changes in your hormone levels affecting the chemicals that regulate mood such as level of estrogen and progesterone in the pill.
Some women after coming off the birth control pill and hope to get pregnant, they may be disappointed. Not only the effects of birth control pill maybe needed sometime to wire off, our body may never be able to adjust causing lost of period permanently and induced risk ovarian cancer.
7. Increase the risk of fibroids but decreased with duration of oral contraceptive use(17)
Oral contraceptive combination pill contains estrogen that promote the growth of fibroids. If you have fibroids and you want take the oral contraceptive pill, you should talk to your doctor first.
C. The Side effects
1. Bleeding and spotting(18)
Bleeding and spotting is normal for the first six months for women starting any oral contraceptive combination pill because our body needs time to adjust to the new medication.
2. Lost interest in sex
Women who take the contraceptive pill are in danger of permanently lost their interest in sex because the oral contraceptive pill inhibits testosterone, the hormone that drives sexual desire even after if they stop the pill(19).
3. Chloasma or melisma(12)(13)
It caused by hormonal changes, as in pregnancy and intake of estrogen in the oral contraceptive pill.
4. Nutritional deficiency(20)(21)
Oral contraceptive pill causes vitamin and mineral imbalances or deficiencies. It depletes magnesium for healthy heart, coenzyme Q10 for healthy heart muscles, folic acid for preventing cervical abnormalities, vitamin B6, B2, B3, zinc, etc.
5. Alternation of emotion in facial expression
The pill may alter the detection of emotions in facial expressions, according to the study by 1Institute of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Department, Leiden University(4).
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(1) Satisfaction and health-related quality of life in women with heavy menstrual bleeding; results from a non-interventional trial of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or conventional medical therapy by Xu L1, Lee BS2, Asif S3, Kraemer P4, Inki P5.(PubMed)
(2) Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception by Caserta D1, Ralli E, Matteucci E, Bordi G, Mallozzi M, Moscarini M.(PubMed)
(3) Low-dose oral contraceptive pill for dysmenorrhea associated with endometriosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial by Harada T1, Momoeda M, Taketani Y, Hoshiai H, Terakawa N.(PubMed)
(4) Oral contraceptives may alter the detection of emotions in facial expressions by Hamstra DA1, De Rover M2, De Rijk RH3, Van der Does W4.(PubMed)
(5) Menstrual suppression for adolescents by Altshuler AL1, Hillard PJ.(PubMed)
(6) Menstrual suppression: current perspectives by Hillard PA.(PubMed)
(7) Debating the evidence: oral contraceptives containing drospirenone and risk of blood clots by Dodd S.(PubMed)
(8) Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and oestrogen doses: Danish cohort study, 2001-9 by Lidegaard Ø1, Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, Skjeldestad FE, Løkkegaard E.(PubMed)
(9) Risk of ischemic stroke among users of the oral contraceptive pill: The Melbourne Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group by Siritho S1, Thrift AG, McNeil JJ, You RX, Davis SM, Donnan GA; Melbourne Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group.(PubMed)
(10) Use of low-dose oral contraceptives and stroke in young women by Schwartz SM1, Siscovick DS, Longstreth WT Jr, Psaty BM, Beverly RK, Raghunathan TE, Lin D, Koepsell TD.(PubMed)
(11) Prospective measurement of blood pressure and heart rate over 24 h in women using combined oral contraceptives with estradiol by Grandi G1, Xholli A1, Napolitano A1, Piacenti I1, Bellafronte M1, Cagnacci A2.(PubMed)(12). [Dermal changes in response to hormonal contraceptives (author's transl)].[Article in German]by Scholz C, Donat H.(PubMed)
(13) Melasma and other skin manifestations or oral contraceptives by Resnik SS.(PubMed)
(14) Comparison of scales for evaluating premenstrual symptoms in women using oral contraceptives by Coffee AL1, Kuehl TJ, Sulak PJ.(PubMed)
(15) Association of oral contraceptive use, other contraceptive methods, and infertility with ovarian cancer risk by Tworoger SS1, Fairfield KM, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Hankinson SE.(PubMed)
(16) Primary infertility and oral contraceptive steroid use by Bagwell MA1, Thompson SJ, Addy CL, Coker AL, Baker ER.(PubMed)
(17) Use of oral contraceptives and uterine fibroids: results from a case-control study by Chiaffarino F1, Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Marsico S, Surace M, Ricci E.(PubMed)
(18) Efficacy and safety of an ascending-dose, extended-regimen levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol combined oral contraceptive by Portman DJ1, Kaunitz AM2, Howard B3, Weiss H4, Hsieh J5, Ricciotti N6.(PubMed)
(19) Hormonal contraception and mental health: results of a population-based study by Toffol E1, Heikinheimo O, Koponen P, Luoto R, Partonen T.(PubMed)
(20) Biological variability and impact of oral contraceptives on vitamins B(6), B(12) and folate status in women of reproductive age by McArthur JO1, Tang H, Petocz P, Samman S.(PubMed)
(21) Oral contraceptives and changes in nutritional requirements by Palmery M1, Saraceno A, Vaiarelli A, Carlomagno G.(PubMed)