Wednesday, 30 October 2019

Cranberry Improves Metabolic Profile of Obesity in Vivo

By Kyle J. Norton

A metabolic profile is a tool to diagnose metabolic disease.

A metabolic disease is a group of medical conditions that disrupt normal cell metabolism in converting food to energy.

Most common causes of metabolic disease are genetic prepositions. However, people with the mutated gene remain healthy for years.

Interestingly, cellular stress and family history have been found to be a major cause of the initiation of the symptoms of metabolic disease, epidemiologically.

As of today, there is no effective treatment of metabolic disease. Some children with the metabolic disease diagnosed at the early age may respond very well. However, many do not respond well to therapy and cause severe problems, despite the early diagnosis.

Dr. Ingraham RH, the lead scientist at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine wrote, "Except in cases of gross mismanagement, these profiles do not offer a "quick fix." In many of the reported cases in which diagnosis of herd problems was attributed to the metabolic profile, the clinician should have been able to identify the problem before the profile was conducted".

According to statistics, the metabolic disease is uncommon in the US.  Metabolic disorders affect approximately 1 in 1,000 individuals.

People who are overweight and obesity and physical inactivity and have a condition of insulin resistance are most likely to have metabolic disease developing.

According to the statistics, among US adults aged 18 years or older, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome rose by more than 35%. From 1988–1994 to 2007–2012, the condition increased from 25.3% to 34.2%.

Out of many risk factors associated with the onset of metabolic syndrome, some researchers suggested the promotion of the Western diet over the past few decades may be the major culprit in inducing the rise of the metabolic syndrome, globally.

Hypertension is a condition of abnormally high blood pressure in the bloodstream. Hypertension a member of the cluster conditions of metabolic syndrome associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood.

According to the statistics provided by the American Heart Association, approximately, 103 million U.S. adults have high blood pressure, or 1 in 2 adults in the US have the syndrome.

Obesity is a medical and chronic condition caused by long-term excessive body fat accumulated. Overweight is a condition of excess body weight relative to height.

According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), people who have a BMI between 25 to 29.9 are considered overweight and a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity.

The formula of the BMI indexBMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

According to the statistic, 68% of the American population is either overweight or obese. However,
in 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older, were overweight, inclduing over 650 million were obese worldwide.

Dr. Shu-Zhong Jiang, the lead scientist wrote in the examination of the metabolic profile of obese wrote, "There are currently over 1.9 billion people who are obese or overweight, leading to a rise in related health complications, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration".

And, "The finding that obesity and metabolic disorder are accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation has fundamentally changed our view of the underlying causes and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome".

The results strongly suggested that obese subjects are at an increased risk of metabolic disease.

Cranberry is an evergreen dwarf shrub, genus Vaccinium, belongings to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern America and Southern Asia. Because of its health benefits, cranberry has been cultivated in some parts of the world for commercial profit and used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat wounds, urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, researchers examined the effect of cranberry extract (CE) on the improvement of lipid dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in an animal model.

The study included postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. 

According to the results from rats 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed at at At PN150 and others subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD) killed at PN180, HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, cholesterol and triglyceride contents.

Furthermore, the HFD group demonstrated a significantly higher lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and higher protein carbonylation in the liver and adipose tissue compared to the SD group.

Application of CE not only inhibited the aforementioned parameters induced by a high-fat diet but also protected the liver tissues against by lowering lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and accumulation of liver fat without completely reversing the adiposity.

Based on the findings, researchers aid, "cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders".

Taken altogether, cranberry may be considered a remedy for the improvement of the metabolic profile of obesity, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract treatment improves triglyceridemia, liver cholesterol, liver steatosis, oxidative damage and corticosteronemia in rats rendered obese by high fat diet by Peixoto TC1, Moura EG1, de Oliveira E1, Soares PN1, Guarda DS1, Bernardino DN1, Ai XX1, Rodrigues VDST1, de Souza GR2, da Silva AJR2, Figueiredo MS1, Manhães AC3, Lisboa PC. (PubMed)
(2) Metabolic profile testing by Ingraham RH1, Kappel LC. (PubMed)
(3) Inflammatory mechanisms linking obesity and metabolic disease by Saltiel AR, Olefsky JM. (PubMed)

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