Grape is a woody vines of the genus Vitis, belong to the family Vitaceae, native to southern Turkey.
A. Quoted From The World Most Popular Herbs
Grape Seed Extract is the commercial extracts from whole grape seeds that contains many concentrations, including vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins(OPCs), etc..The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agents and to treat skin wounds with less scarring, allergies, macular degeneration, arthritis, enhance circulation of blood vessels, lower cholesterol, etc.
A. Health Benefits
in the comparison of effects of Grape Seed Extract (GSE) and vitamins C and E on aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and associated increases of lipid peroxidation in rats, found that GSE protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers more effectively than VC or VE, while its protection against aspirin ulcers was comparable for all treatments. GSE produced the greatest reductions of gastric MDA in both models, according to" Effects of grape seed extract, vitamin C, and vitamin e on ethanol- and aspirin-induced ulcers" by Cuevas VM, Calzado YR, Guerra YP, Yera AO, Despaigne SJ, Ferreiro RM, Quintana DC.(1)
2. Pulmonary fibrosis
in assessment of grape seed extract (GSE) or vitamin E (Vit E) as antioxidants in effecting oxidative stress implication in the pathogenesis of silica-induced lung fibrosis indicated that according to the results of this study GSE could reduce the fibrogenic effect of silica. However; no synergistic effect was observed after co-administration of GSE and Vit E, according to "A comparative study of grape seed extract and vitamin E effects on silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats" by Hemmati AA, Nazari Z, Samei M.(2)
3. Liver protective effect
In the observation of the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, and its liver protective effect found that GSE was supplemented, no significant changes in blood count parameters were noted. It appears that GSE protects the rat liver and inhibits methotrexate-induced oxidative stress. These data indicate that GSE may be of therapeutic benefit when used with MTX, according to "Role of grape seed extract on methotrexate induced oxidative stress in rat liver" by Cetin A, Kaynar L, Kocyigit I, Hacioglu SK, Saraymen R, Ozturk A, Sari I, Sagdic O.(3)
4. Antioxidant Activity
in the assessment of phenolic content, antioxidant activity of White and red wines spiked with green tea extract and grape seed extract found that the green tea extract and grape seed extract increased antioxidant activity dose-dependently and the CRTs varied considerably between the Korean and Australian groups, with Koreans preferring wines spiked with green tea extract and Australians showing a preference for wines spiked with grape seed extract, according to "Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity and Cross-Cultural Consumer Rejection Threshold in White and Red Wines Functionally Enhanced with Catechin-Rich" by Yoo YJ, Saliba A, Prenzler PD, Ryan DM.(4)
5. Skin Photoprotection
In the study of polyphenols distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc., found that the selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans, according to "Polyphenols: Skin Photoprotection and Inhibition of Photocarcinogenesis" by Afaq F, Katiyar SK.(5)
6. Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries
In the evaluation of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) protects against renal I/R injury found that GSPE significantly reduced increases in urea, creatinine and cystatin C; increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase levels and reduced malondialdehyde levels. GSPE reduced histological renal damage and nuclear factor-κB activity. These results suggest that GSPE reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R, according to "Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Reduces Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries in Rats" by Wei R, Ding R, Wang Y, Tang L.(6)
a. In the reviews of Grapes and grape-based products as one such class of dietary products and its cancer chemopreventive potential, indicated that Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population, according to "Anticancer and cancerchemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products" by Kaur M, Agarwal C, Agarwal R.(7a)
b. In the study of the biological and chemopreventive activities of grapeseed polyphenols and its inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis found that suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grapecultivars was as effective as that of the seeded variety and these may have beneficial effects in disease states, especially cancer, according to "Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes" by Ramchandani AG, Karibasappa GS, Pakhale SS.(7b)
8. Colon Cancer
In the investigation of polyphenols of grape waste and its protection against human diseases related to oxidative stress, such as colorectal cancer, found that the grape extract has a significant antiproliferative effect in a tumor cell line. These data indicate that grape extract is a promising product to be used as an anti-free radical agent and could exert a chemopreventive action, according to "Grape waste extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains bioactive antioxidant molecules and induces antiproliferative effects in human colon adenocarcinoma cells" byLazzè MC, Pizzala R, Gutiérrez Pecharromán FJ, Gatòn Garnica P, Antolín Rodríguez JM, Fabris N, Bianchi L.(8)
9. Prostate cancer
In the analyzing the bioflavonoids from Grape seed extract (GSE) and theirs effect on prostate cancer (PCA) found that that GSE possibly causes mitochondrial damage leading to cytochrome c release in cytosol and activation of caspases resulting in PARP cleavage and execution of apoptotic death of human PCA DU145 cells. Furthermore, GSE-caused caspase 3-mediated apoptosis also involves other pathway(s) including caspase 9 activation, according to "Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release" by Agarwal C, Singh RP, Agarwal R.(9)
in the association of consumption of red wine and other polyphenolic compounds and prevention of cardiovascular diseases found that aortic atherosclerosis evaluated as the cholesterol content in aortic tissue was comparable in the control and GSE-dosed females, but it was significantly reduced in the abdominal part of GSE-dosed male compared to the controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, feeding GSE extract to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits had no significant effects in females but was associated with transient less hypercholesterolemic response to semisynthetic diet, according to "Effects of red grape skinand seed extract supplementation on atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits" by Frederiksen H, Mortensen A, Schrøder M, Frandsen H, Bysted A, Knuthsen P, Rasmussen SE.(10)
11. Arthritis (CIA)
in the examination of whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice found that GSPE dose-dependently suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. GSPE significantly reduced hydrogen peroxide production by anti-CD3-monoclonal-antibody-stimulated CD4+ splenocytes. These results indicate that intraperitoneal injection of GSPE attenuated CIA in mice. GSPE may be useful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, according to "Grapeseed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates collagen-induced arthritis" by Cho ML, Heo YJ, Park MK, Oh HJ, Park JS, Woo YJ, Ju JH, Park SH, Kim HY, Min JK.(11).
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutriyion, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.