Arnica is a herbaceous species, genus perennial, belongings to the family Asteraceae, antive to Europe and Asia, used in herbal medicine for centuries to treat strains, sprains, and bruises.
Wound healing is process of repairing after damage of skin, tissues, organs, etc.
Helenalin, chamissonolid, Sesquiterpene lactone, lignans of the furofuran, dibenzylbutyrolactone, dibenzylbutyrolactol types, pinoresinol, epipinoresinol, phillygenin, matairesinol, nortrachelogenin, and nortracheloside, six dibenzylbutyrolactol derivative.
In the investigation to compare Anise tinctures and sesquiterpene lactones (SL), the secondary plant metabolites isolated from of Arnica, anti-inflammatory effects in inhibited expression of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, researchers found that application of Arnica tinctures and SL potently suppressed NF-kappaB activation and IL-12 production in dendritic cells at high concentrations but has immunostimulatory effects at low concentrations.
CD4+ T cells expression is a displaying CD4 molecules on their surface induced by glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells in sending signals to T helper cells to initiate immune pro inflammatory response to the infectious site.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory mechanisms prevent contact hypersensitivity to Arnica montana L by Lass C1, Vocanson M, Wagner S, Schempp CM, Nicolas JF, Merfort I, Martin SF.(PubMed)
(2) Differential effects of Helenalin, an anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactone, on the proteome, metabolome and the oxidative stress response in several immune cell types by Zwicker P1, Schultze N1, Niehs S2, Albrecht D3, Methling K2, Wurster M2, Wachlin G3, Lalk M2, Lindequist U1, Haertel B4.(PubMed)
(3) Helenalin suppresses essential immune functions of activated CD4+ T cells by multiple mechanisms by Berges C1, Fuchs D, Opelz G, Daniel V, Naujokat C.(PubMed)