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Saturday, 29 April 2017

The Research and studies of Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs): Osteoporosis - The Diagnosis


Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                                                  Osteoporosis


Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).


                           The Diagnosis 


According to the Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Scientific Advisory Board, Osteoporosis Society of Canada, Screening and diagnostic methods: risk-factor assessment, clinical evaluation, measurement of bone mineral density, laboratory investigations.

If you are experience certain symptom of osteoporosis, the tests which your doctor order include
1. Blood and urinary tests
The aim of the tests are to check for the bone metabolism and the progression of bone (loss) diseases.

2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is one most common test to measure the total bone density of including spine, hip, wrist etc. with accurate result.
3. Quantitative Ultrasound and computed tomography (QCT)
The evaluation of bone density at the lumbar spine and hip.using a standard X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanner. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS), a technology
for measuring properties of bone at peripheral skeletal sites, is more portable and less expensive than DXA, without the use of ionizing radiation(23).
Dr. Riggs BL and the research team in the study of Better tools for assessing osteoporosis indicated that a whole new field of research into the determinants of bone loss and fractures in the axial skeleton and set the stage for subsequent development of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), which are now the standard methods for assessing osteoporosis severity and treatment efficacy(24), but other study found that in cross-sectional study of males with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), High-resolution quantitative computed tomography (HRQCT)-based measurements and finite element analysis (FEA) variables were superior to DXA in discriminating between patients of differing prevalent vertebral fracture status(25).
4. Etc.


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References
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7864688
(23) http://www.iscd.org/visitors/pdfs/10-QuantitativeUltrasoundintheMgmtofOsteo.pdf
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23154276
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23149277
(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22618377