Friday, 28 April 2017

The Research and studies of Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs): Osteoporosis - The Risk factors

Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia


Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time. It is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and often associated with senescence in vertebrates due to excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints, arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries(6).

                           The Risk factors

1. Young Age at Diagnosis, Male Sex, and Decreased Lean Mass
According to Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul,
a. Diagnosed before attainment of puberty, were showed to have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis
b. If you are males, you are at increased risk of osteopenia or osteoporosis than females
c. Regional lean mass was significantly associated to the reduce risk of affecting the limbs

2. Adult growth hormone replacement
Adult growth hormone replacement, were identified to associated to increased risk of osteoporosis and osteopenia, according to the study by Seoul National University College of Medicine(13).

3. Aging
Risk of osteoporosis increases with age.
Bone loss occurs during the normal aging process. In women, natural menopause also effect the additional bone losses, according to the study by Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University(14).

4. Chlamydia pneumoniae
Individual presented of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA are alsp associated to both in osteoporotic bone tissue(15).

5. Race
Lactose maldigestion showed a greater affect on low bone density. Extensive lactose maldigestion among Hispanic-American and Asian-American populations may elevate the risk for osteoporosis(16).

6. Family history
According to the reported physician-diagnosed osteoporosis and family history in a representative sample of U.S., family history is associated to a significant, independent risk factor for osteoporosis in U.S. women aged>or=35 years(17).

7. Body size
Large body size is associated to the risk of the development of osteoporosis and a salutary effect on BMD in both blacks and whites, in a study of three groups of postmenopausal women: 104 healthy black women, 45 healthy white women, and 52 osteoporotic white (18).

8. Diet and lifestyle
BMD was higher in habits of alcohol drinking, green tea drinking, and physical activity and lower in those with the habits of smoking and cheese consumption, in a study of total of 632 women age > or =60 years(19).

9. Heavy alcohol intake or alcoholism
Heavy alcohol intake or alcoholism, however, frequently disrupts calcium and bone homeostasis, leading to reduce bone mineral density and increase the incidence of fragility fracture, according to the study by Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Saitama Medical School(20).

10. Smoking and lower serum IGF-I levels
A lower BMI is found in patient who are current smoking history and lower serum IGF-I levels in middle-aged Korean men(21).

11. Other risk factors
The frequency of decreased bone mineral density, low vitamin and calcium diet content and insufficiency with vitamins are found among patients suffering from chronic diseases (of cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, osteopenia and osteoporosis)(22).
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