Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common form of primary liver cancer.
The health benefits
It is believe that the Gene CXC12 with diverted cellular functions and CXCR4, a protein in the cell surface chemical reactions may involve in the process of development of liver cancer. Down regulation of CXCR4 expression in these reaction may be considered in prevention and treatment the spread of liver cancer. Emodin, a major chemical constituent found in Cascara Sagrada exerted its anti cancer activities by inhibiting the NF-κB activation (inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis) and suppression of CXCL12-induced the spread and invasion in HCC cell lines. In HepG2 cells, in doses depending manner, emodin increased the protein level of cellular tumor antigen (P53) and decreased the protein level of NF-κB/p65 (mutation of gene causes of cancers) in HepG2 cells, a liver cancer cell line. The search team at Wuhan University, also found that emodin not only down regulated expression of (a protein in regulating and contributing to programmed cell death or apoptosis, but also inhibited the heterodimerization of Bcl-2 with Bax (pro-apoptotic Bax protein). Through these results, emodin suppression of CXCR4 signaling pathway as well as controlling the process of a multifaceted complex cascade of events in liver progression may be another choices in treating liver cancer. The other chemical constituent, Aloe-emodin, also is found to exert its anti cancer effect on the proliferation of hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma cells as it inhibited
the Huh-7 cells (an inherited disorder) in dose- and time-dependent manners and anti proliferative effect via induction of DNA damage and apoptosis.
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1. Cascara Sagrada can be liver toxic.
2. It may cause Postal hypertension
Cascara sagrada (CS) has been associated with the development of cholestatic hepatitis, complicated by portal hypertension.
3. Fresh cut, dried bark may cause vomiting and diarrhea.
4. It may allergic effect.
(1) Emodin suppresses migration and invasion through the modulation of CXCR4 expression in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma by Manu KA, Shanmugam MK, Ong TH, Subramaniam A, Siveen KS, Perumal E, Samy RP, Bist P, Lim LH, Kumar AP, Hui KM, Sethi G.(PubMed)
(2) Emodin regulates apoptotic pathway in human liver cancer cells by Yu JQ, Bao W, Lei JC.(PubMed)
(3) Apoptosis by aloe-emodin is mediated through down-regulation of calpain-2 and ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells by Jeon W, Jeon YK, Nam MJ.(PubMed)