Sunday, 9 February 2014

Breast cancer in Vitamin B3's Points of view

By Kyle J. Norton

Niacin, is also known as vitamin B3, nicotinic acid, an organic compound with the formula
C6H5NO2, found abundantly in chicken, beef, fish, cereal, peanuts and legumes. It is best known for its effects in lowering cholesterol and triglycerides and removing toxic from our body and promoting production of steroid hormones.

Epidemiological studies, focused in niacin in reduced risk of breast cancer have produced conflict results. In human breast cancer cell, combination of niacin and butyrate induced apoptosis, through activation of GPR109A, a G-protein-coupled receptor in inhibition of genes, involved in cell survival and anti-apoptotic signaling(1). But in the study of breast cancer risk among Chinese women, niacin was found to be associated with ER+/PR+ breast cancer risk depending to the highest vs. lowest quartile of intake in premenopausal women(2). Unfortunately, some researchers indicated that regardless to the doses, even Mega-dose vitamins and minerals did not improve the breast cancer-specific survival and disease-free survival times in breast cancer patients(2a).

The study of potent antioxidant Niacin (CoRN), co administration with Tamoxifen (TAM) showed favorable impact on various blood chemistry profiles and may be considered as a co-administrating antioxidants with conventional chemotherapy but large scale randomized studies over a longer time span are required to ascertain the safety and efficacy(3).
In tumour angiogenesis, the co administrations also decreased the levels of pro-angiogenic factors which reduced the tumor burden in protection from cancer metastases and recurrence(4). Oral administration of daily supplement of 100 mg co-enzyme Q10, 10 mg riboflavin and 50 mg niacin (CoRN), one dosage per d along with 10 mg tamoxifen twice per day in breast caner patients showed to reduce tumor burden  by significant increase in poly(ADP-ribose polymerase levels(Differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and Normal or abnormal recovery from DNA damage) and disappearance of RASSF1A(involved in early tumorigenesis) DNA methylation patterns(5). In postmenopausal women with breast cancer, the above combination significantly increased the AO(antioxidants) status, while decreasing lipid and lipid peroxides(free radical)(6).

Niacin is found effectively in reduced risk of breast cancer when co administrated. Combination with other vitamins and Tamoxifen (TAM) showed to provide protection and management in the process of breast cancer treatments, through exhibition of antioxidants status and decreased free radical expression. Please make sure to follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Overdoses of vitamin B3 may induce symptoms of severe skin flushing combined with dizziness, rapid heartbeat, itching, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, etc.

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(1) The niacin/butyrate receptor GPR109A suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell survival by Elangovan S, Pathania R, Ramachandran S, Ananth S, Padia RN, Lan L, Singh N, Martin PM, Hawthorn L, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V, Thangaraju M.(PubMed)
(2) Dietary B vitamin and methionine intakes and breast cancer risk among Chinese women by Shrubsole MJ, Shu XO, Li HL, Cai H, Yang G, Gao YT, Gao J, Zheng W.(PubMed)
(2a) Mega-dose vitamins and minerals in the treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer: an historical cohort study by Lesperance ML, Olivotto IA, Forde N, Zhao Y, Speers C, Foster H, Tsao M, MacPherson N, Hoffer A.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of Coenzyme Q(10), Riboflavin and Niacin on Tamoxifen treated postmenopausal breast cancer women with special reference to blood chemistry profiles by Yuvaraj S, Premkumar VG, Shanthi P, Vijayasarathy K, Gangadaran SG, Sachdanandam P.(PubMed)
(4) Anti-angiogenic potential of CoenzymeQ10, riboflavin and niacin in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy by Premkumar VG, Yuvaraj S, Sathish S, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P.(PubMed)
(5) Co-enzyme Q10, riboflavin and niacin supplementation on alteration of DNA repair enzyme and DNA methylation in breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy by Premkumar VG, Yuvaraj S, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P.(PubMed)
(6) Augmented antioxidant status in Tamoxifen treated postmenopausal women with breast cancer on co-administration with Coenzyme Q10, Niacin and Riboflavin by Yuvaraj S, Premkumar VG, Vijayasarathy K, Gangadaran SG, Sachdanandam P.(PubMed)

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